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Categories Of Behavior. IVAN PAVLOV. CLASSICAL CONDITIONING. Context of embarrassing situation ->blushing Odor of food that once made you sick ->nausea Sight of parent while raiding cookie jar ->fear. Thorndike’s Puzzle Box. B.F. Skinner 1904-1990. Pigeon in Operant Chamber.

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classical conditioning
  • Context of embarrassing situation ->blushing
  • Odor of food that once made you sick ->nausea
  • Sight of parent while raiding cookie jar ->fear
instrumental conditioning
Instrumental Conditioning
  • Doing chores -> money
  • Doing chores -> praise
  • Telling a lie to avoid blame -> avoidance
  • Putting on a coat to remove -> removal chill
  • Getting a speeding ticket -> punishment
basic conditioning procedures
Basic Conditioning Procedures
  • Instrumental conditioning
    • Type R conditioning
    • Operant conditioning
    • Trial and Error Learning

Pavlovian Conditioning

    • Type S Conditioning
    • Respondent Conditioning
law of effect
  • Thorndike: Responses that are followed by pleasurable effect is stamped in; responses followed by unpleasurable (painful events) are stamped out.
  • Skinner: Rate of emitting responses that are followed by a positive reinforcer is increased; by a negative reinforcer is decreased.
  • Thorndike: Responses trained by trial and error.
  • Skinner: Responses shaped by method of successive approximation.
types of reinforcers


  • primary [S+R] food, drink, odors
  • secondary [S+r] approval, money


  • Primary [S-R] loud noise, shock, bright light
  • Secondary [S-r] angry look, bad grade, fine
instrumental conditioning type r
  • 2-term contingency:
  • response -> reinforcement
  • R -> SR
  • (bar press) -> (food)
  • Nature of reinforcer can vary:
  • Positive - S+R, S+r
  • Negative - S-R, S-r
  • Primary - S+R, S-R
  • Secondary - S+r, S-r
contingencies of reinforcement

R-> S+R Reward training (primary reinforcement)

R-> S-R Punishment (primary reinforcement)

R-> S+r Positive secondary reinforcement

R-> S-r Negative secondary reinforcement

R removes S-R Escape training

R postpones S-R Avoidance training

R -> SR Omission training

two term contingency is typically occasioned by a discriminative stimulus s d
Two-term contingency is typically “occasioned” by a discriminative stimulus (SD)
  • SD: R -> SR
  • light: bar press -> food
  • no light: bar press -> no food
  • Nature of discrimative stimuli can vary:
    • exteroceptive
    • proprioceptive
    • interoceptive
functions of a stimulus

Eliciting (US->UR, C->CR)

Reinforcing (S+R, S-R, S+r, S-r)

Discriminative (SD: R->SR;

S : R SR)

discriminative operant
Discriminative Operant:
  • SD: R SR
  • S : R SR
types of discriminative stimuli
Types Of Discriminative Stimuli
  • Exteroceptive: Stimuli generated by sensory organs.
  • Proprioceptive: Stimuli generated by muscles and tendons, e.g., doing something by “feel” - knowing where you are in the dark
  • Interoceptive: Stimuli generated by internal organs; that are innervated by the autonomic nervous system.
skinner s theory of chaining






Skinner’s Theory of Chaining

turn approach seize press

Sn-3:Rn-3  Sn-2:Rn-2  Sn-1:Rn-1  Sn:RnS

schedules of reinforcement
Schedules Of Reinforcement
  • Number (Ratio)
  • n responses  SR
  • Time (Interval)
  • First response after t seconds SR
basic schedules
Basic Schedules:
  • Fixed Ratio (FR)
  • Variable Ratio (VR)
  • Fixed Interval (FI)
  • Variable Interval (VI)
cumulative record
Cumulative Record

no responses constant rate accelerating

skinner s theory of instrumental conditioning
Skinner’s “Theory” Of Instrumental Conditioning
  • Two-term contingency: R  SR
  • Nature of reinforcer can vary: R  S [S+R, Sr, S-R, S-r].
  • 3-term contingency (Discriminative operant)

SD : R  SR (light: bar press  food)

S : R  SR (no light: bar press  food)

  • Chaining of discriminative operants:
  • Nature of discriminative stimulus can vary: exteroceptive








Sn-3:Rn-3  Sn-2:Rn-2  Sn-1:Rn-1  Sn:RnS

skinner s theory cont
Skinner’s “Theory”(cont.)
  • Contingency of reinforcement can vary: R  S±R(r)
  • Schedule of reinforcement can vary: Rn/t  S±R
    • subject must emit nresponses within a particular time frame t.
  • Verbal Behavior. Behavior that is reinforced by a member of one’s verbal community.
  • Private events. Discriminative responding to proprioceptive or interoceptive stimuli (stimuli under our skin). Sd : r  Sr or Sd : r  Sr.
pascal the heart has reason that reason will never know
Pascal:“The heart has reason that reason will never know.”


“I think, therefore I am.”

skinner freud terrace on consciousness
Skinner [& Freud (& Terrace)] On Consciousness
  • Consciousness is a proper subject matter for psychology but it is not an explanation of behavior. It is what has to be explained (e.g., Tom hit Bill because Tom felt angry).
    • Why did Tom feel angry?
    • How did Tom know he was angry?
  • Consciousness vs. Awareness:
    • Animals are aware of objects (but only fleetingly).
    • Humans are conscious of objects (because they can name them).
skinner freud terrace on consciousness con t
Skinner [& Freud (& Terrace)] on Consciousness (Con’t.)
  • Consciousness develops because it enhances the social fabric of the verbal community. It provides us with a sense of “other minds”, another person’s hunger, pain, fear, rage, sadness, truthfulness, etc. In this sense, consciousness is adaptive.
    • Internal states are inferred by adult (“You seem hungry.”)
  • Feedback about private events is not as precise as feedback for tacting public events.
  • Discriminative control of inner states (tacting) becomes autonomous with experience.
verbal behavior
Verbal Behavior
  • Verbal Behavior. Behavior that is reinforced by a member of one’s verbal community.
  • Mands (“demands”), a 2-term contingency:

verbal response SR [”baba”  bottle]

  • Tacts - [tactus (Latin, “to point”)], a 3-term contingency:

-SD: verbal response  Sr

[Sight of Tom’s apple]: Mary: “May I please have an apple?” Tom gives Mary an apple.]

verbal behavior con t
Verbal Behavior (con’t.)

Examples of discriminative control of verbal behavior:

  • echoic behavior:

*Mother says [“dog”]: “dog”  “good”

  • textual behavior:

*Printed word [dog]: “dog”  “good”

  • transcription:

*Write the word [d-o-g]: d-o-g  “good”

  • intraverbal responses:

*Printed word [c-h-I-e-n]: “dog”  “bien”

*“How are you?”: “Fine thanks”  “good”

*Printed letters [Na]: “sodium”  “good”

*“3 x 3”: “9”  “good”