Why did William build castles to keep control? L.O: To know why William built castles. To know what the features of a motte and bailey and a Stone Keep castle have and what the advantages and disadvantages were of each castle were.
Keep. This is where The Lord would stay. Palisade: A wooden fence Protecting the Normans From the English. Motte. A Large earth hill Bailey: (this means enclosure) This was the courtyard. Housing the sheds and soldiers quarters.
Why did he need to build castles so quickly? • The English were not happy that William was now king. • The English were fighting with the Normans he had to show them that he was in charge. • He wanted to show them that he was watching them in every town and village.
William needed to build castles _______. Many English people continued to rebel against the ____. He needed to construct ________ along the coast and across the _______________ in order to protect him and his followers from the angry locals. The first castles were built of ____ and stone, as these building resources were easy to find in _______ areas. There were two main parts to the castle. The ______, which was an earth mound where a small _______ fort was situated. The other part was called a ________. Often livestock, horses and soldiers families lived in this enclosure. BAILEY, QUICKLY, WOOD, FOREST, LOOKOUT, MOTTE, KING, DEFENCES, COUNTRYSIDE
Let’s test what you have learnt already? Let’s play slap the board. Boys V’s Girls hill Motte palisade bailey Battering ram stone slow keep Lord enclosure Stone keeps
How would you attack a castle like this? • http://www.youtube.com/watch?v=1PtAlUKX4PY
Questions. • 1) Why did William have to build castles? • 2) Why did he choose the materials of wood and earth? • 3) Did lots of people live in Motte and Bailey castles ? Explain your answer. • 4) Why do we not know a great deal about Motte and bailey castles today?
A Stone Keep Castle • Label your diagram of the stone keep castle: • These are the labels you have to choose from: • Well *solar *great hall • Battlements *great fire • Guard room *store room • Garderobe * entrance
The Stone Keep castles • http://www.youtube.com/watch?v=6VhLzMnwqI0 • http://www.youtube.com/watch?v=BtaRI1UD0y0
Date Castle Strengths Weaknesses 11th C Motte and Bailey 11th C Shell keep 12th C Square keep 13th C Concentric Castle High up Ditch Fast to build Wood burns Can be cut down Stone Wall Capture wall take whole building Thick stone walls Entrance above ground level Corners can be mined or battered 2 or 3 walls Inside wall higher than outer Strong gatehouse Round towers Only betrayal by someone Or Very long siege
? Defending & Attacking a Castle
trebuchet mangonel Battering Ram
Penthouse ballista Siege tower Battering ram
Attacking & Defending a Castle In pairs, discuss 3 things you would like to learn about attacking and defending a castle. Remember to pose (ask) a question. i.e. write down 3 questions you would like answered today.
Individual Work Name each weapon labelled: a b c d e f c b f d a e
Why were defences so important? Wooden keep ? • Had to be safe from attack • Make it difficult for the enemy to break in motte ? Gate look-out ? ? ditch bailey ? drawbridge ? palisade ?
Existing castles were slowly improved Outer curtain wall Stone Keep Curtain wall well Inner bailey drawbridge Portcullis crenellation Arrow loops gatehouse
New castles built with new defences
Stone Castle Defences Towers & turrets battlements hoardings gatehouse machicolations arrow loops portcullis drawbridge high, thick walls moat
crenel merlon shutter Battlements where fighting was done crenellation
Gate Defences • Speed important – had to close off castle quickly • 2 portcullises could trap the enemy • Murder holes could be used to pour throw hot tar or water, crush enemy with stones or fire at them with arrows
Methods of Attack Improved New castles built with new defences Why?
Attacking Besieging a Castle ladders Siege tower mangonel longbow crossbows
trebuchet mangonel Types of catapults Fired missiles at or over wall • Fired missiles over wall: • Stones • Dead animals • Heads of the enemy
Battering Ram Attacking the Gate Tortoise Break down gates or smash the walls
Penthouse ballista Other Siege Weapons Sappers’ tent For use on square keep or square towers
Individual Work Name each weapon labelled: a b c d e f c b f d a e
Individual Work Castle Defences • How were soldiers protected on the battlements? • Draw an arrow loop and explain its purpose. • Give 2 advantages of round towers in a curtain wall. • Describe 3 methods used to defend the castle gate. Include a picture of one of these defences.
Individual Work Siege Weapons Quiz – what am I? Identify each weapon from the cryptic clue: • When the catch of my big spoon is released I fling out a huge stone with great force. What am I? • I protect miners while they dig under a square keep. What am I? • I use powder and flame to fire metal balls over the castle walls. I was not invented until the 13th C. What am I?
Individual Work Siege Weapons • With my sling I throw stones or dead animals over the castle wall. What am I? • I can be wheeled up to the wall to allow attackers to climb onto the wall. What am I? • I am used to break down the gate? What am I? • I am made of metal and rope and help the soldiers climb up castle walls? What am I?
Individual Work Siege Weapons Quiz – what am I? Identify each weapon from the cryptic clue: • When the catch of my big spoon is released I fling out a huge stone with great force. What am I? • I protect miners while they dig under a square keep. What am I? • I use powder and flame to fire metal balls over the castle walls. I was not invented until the 13th C. What am I? mangonel Penthouse or sappers tent cannon
Individual Work Siege Weapons trebuchet • With my sling I throw stones or dead animals over the castle wall. What am I? • I can be wheeled up to the wall to allow attackers to climb onto the wall. What am I? • I am used to break down the gate? What am I? • I am made of metal and rope and help the soldiers climb up castle walls? What am I? siege tower battering ram grappling hook
Have you been successful? How do you know?
Well done Excellent learning today
Castle defence keywords Barbican The extra gatehouse at the front of the castle. Portcullis The strong oak and metal gate at the front of the castle (one pence coins carry an image of them). Murder holes Holes that soldiers could pour hot sand, water and lime through to kill and wound an enemy.
Location, location, location • The first defence a castle had was its location. • Harlech Castle was almost impossible to surround – why? Harlech Castle • Other castles were built on hills, such as Guildford and Conisbrough. This meant they could easily observe any enemy force approaching!
The castle entrance The castle entrance often had a barbican attached. This extra gatehouse protected the weakest part of the castle. There would be extra soldiers, and several heavy oak doors and portcullises to get past. Gatehouse Barbican Three entrance gates (portcullis) to get through
Defences before and at the main entrance Click on the murder holes, portcullis and drawbridge. Why do you think the main entrance had so much defence?
Castle defences The castle battlements jutted out from the top of the wall so that soldiers could drop heavy stones and pour boiling tar onto the enemy below. At the bottom of the curtain wall the walls were angled so that when stones were dropped they would bounce off the bottom and hit the attackers.
Castles were often built near rivers. Why do you think this was?
There were a number of features which could be added to the castle to make it stronger. Most castles had round towers in their walls. This was so soldiers could fire in all directions along the front walls. The strongest building was the keep. It had numerous defensive features including very thick walls, narrow staircases, big cellars for sieges. Even the entrance was raised and had drawbridges to stop an attack.
Why did castles develop? As castles were frequently under attack, they had to be as strong as possible. As the attackers improved their methods of attack, so the castle builders had to improve the castle’s ability to defend. How do you think a battering ram was used to attack a castle?
Castle attack In this picture the attackers are tunnelling. They would mine underneath the castle hoping to collapse it! What are the advantages of this method of attack? How would this catapult have worked? Do you think it would have been very effective? Why?
These siege towers had a drawbridge at the top. The soldiers would climb up the tower and rush across the drawbridge onto the castle hoarding (the bit jutting out at the top of the castle). They were often covered in animal skins to provide further protection from arrows. What do you think were the main disadvantages with this method of attack?