Chemical Industries in Finland 1800 - 1950 - PowerPoint PPT Presentation

mahola
chemical industries in finland 1800 1950 n.
Skip this Video
Loading SlideShow in 5 Seconds..
Chemical Industries in Finland 1800 - 1950 PowerPoint Presentation
Download Presentation
Chemical Industries in Finland 1800 - 1950

play fullscreen
1 / 38
Download Presentation
Chemical Industries in Finland 1800 - 1950
175 Views
Download Presentation

Chemical Industries in Finland 1800 - 1950

- - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - E N D - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - -
Presentation Transcript

  1. ChemicalIndustries in Finland1800 - 1950 Panu Nykänen, PhD Aalto University, ENG

  2. Finland • Climate • Winter • Summer • Logistics • The FarEnd of the Europe • BalticSea • Culturalcontext • Western Europe since 1200’s • Population • 1850=1,6 mio • 1950=4 mio • Potato 1840’s, medicalsciences 1890’s • Nordicdemocracy • (single chamberparliament 1908) • Part of Sweden 1300 - 1809

  3. Industry • Practically no industry in the country in 1700’s • A papermill (laterFrenckell) • A glassfactory (Åvik) • A woolspinnery • BlastFurnaces (1700) Fiskars etc. • FinlandsEconomicalSociety • Linkbetween University and Industry • Common peopleliving of primaryproduction • Alimentary • Clothing • Soap, glueetc. www.fiskarsvillage.fi

  4. History of learning • Catholic Church from 1200’s • Universities in France, after 1500’s (reformation) Germany • Uppsala University 1477 • University of Turku (AcademiaAboensis) 1640 - 1828 • Johan Gadolin, Pehr Gadd • Mr. Napoleon vs. Mr. Alexander 1809 • Finland to be a grandduchy in Russian empire • Russianeeded a bridgehead to West • Sweden – Kings of Bernadotte family • Russian allywasPrussia (Berlin)

  5. Scientificbasis Mäntsälä Alikartano Education & research Univ. Uppsala - Sciences Univ. of Turku 1640 (Turun Akatemia) – Administration & Ecclestical Militaryengineers Fort. Suomenlinna 1740 -> Alikartano in Mäntsälä , home of family von Haartman National Museum’sexhibition

  6. Engineering • MilitaryEngineers 1730’s on Fortress Suomenlinna • Great Fire of Turku 1827 • Total destruction of the Capital • No scientificcollectionsanymore • University to Helsinki 1828 • MostmodernEuropeanuniversity 1835 • Administration, humansciences, astronomy, mathematics • Chemistry and naturesciencesfrom 1867 -> • Gadolin’sproposal 1802 • Need for a technicalinstitute • Act of technicaleducation 1835 • Was to bepostponedbecause no teachers, no students • 9.6.1847 founding of Technical School of Helsinki (Aalto University) • Firstprofessorships • Chemical engineering • Mechanical engineering • 1872 Polytechnic School • 1879 Polytechnic Institute • 1908 University of Technology

  7. Ms. Finland’stwolegs • Forests • The volume of forestswasnotknownbefore Edmund Berg’sinventory in 1850’s • The value of forestswasnotknownbefore the work of Ilvessalo in 1920’s • Metals and Minerals • How canRussiaget • Fe, Cu • Mechanical engineering • How canRussiaget • Machinery for Industry • Instruments for Army, Navy, Surveying

  8. Basic Problemhowcanwemakeit? • Science vs. Technology Butif Technology is somethingelse? Edwin Layton: Mirror Image Twins Derek De SollaPrice Twocumulativemasses of knowledgethatdonotdiscuss with eachother Always a Feedback fromsociety Has a specialrole in sciences, wheredevelopingprocessestakedecades! -

  9. Colorado cleanenergy Big Picture – TriplehelixEzkowitz 1995 • Science • Basic Science • Science • Technology • Applied Science • Science • Technology • Industry • Capital? • Governmentsactions and politicalsituation

  10. LargeTechnological System LTS • Thomas P. Hughes • Networks of Power 1993 • Financing • Governance, legislation • Science - technology • Technologicalcomplex • Discussion with societyetc? • Typicalexampleelectricaltechnology • Edison’scomplex • Power plants • Distributingnetwork • Transformerstations • Pluggingdevice • Consumer’stechnology etc.

  11. Lean organisation • TypicalFinnishscientificorganisation – lack of resources • Typicallyoneprofessor in e.g. chemistry • Mainstream of research • Problem: closing and reopeningbranches of research • Result: Gap of onegeneration • Cases • Organicchemistry – biobasedrawmaterials • Metallurgy & mining

  12. Wood Chemistry – twoschools of pyrolysis • Charring of wood – traditionalpits • 1820’s Karl von Reichenbach’sMill • State committee 1835, 1856 etc. • Processing of Wood materials for oilysubstances • Better profit from refined products • Longestindustrialresearchproject in Finnishhistory? Rouenplant, Musspratt 1860

  13. Products and Costs of RouenMill

  14. TraditionalTarproducing • Tarpit • Cheaprawmaterial • Cheapworkingforce • Lowprize at the harbour • Heavy organisation in buing the goods • Products • Tar • To berefined in England – HugesFlocton & Bannanbuys 50 000 b/y • Pitch • Glue & fillingup • Waterysubstances • MosquitoOil • Alimentarypurposes

  15. Tökötti (Degotja) • Vessel tar from bark of Betula alba • Stone age tradition – 4000 BC up to 1950’s • No commercial use in Finland before end of the 19th Century • Leather grease • Lubrication oil for mills and wheels • Mosquito Oil • Poisonous!!! Stone agevesselssometimesused for production. NBA

  16. Entrepreneurs • EconomicalSociety’s Pitch vessel in Oulu, Pikisaari • Largestcoppervessel in Europe • Pinetarpitch for British Navy • British Navydestroyed in 1855 • TarCities – Coast of Gulf of Bothnia NBA, Niukkanen 2002

  17. Scientificapproach • Fredrik Johan Soldan • Technical School (Aalto) • ”Grandfatherwhobought the lamp” • Inventory of the tarindustry in 1856 • Edward Quist & H. A. Wahlforss • Polytechnic School (Aalto) • FirstscientificresearchBidragtillkännedomen af reten. Helsinki 1868 H.A. Wahlforss

  18. Engineersadvice for entrepreneurs – firstwave EndreLekve 1865

  19. Rostock Wiethagen, Tar-undköhlerhof Producingcoal <– beech – oak - elm

  20. Evo Savijärvi TarMill 1860’s • Alexander af Forselles, director of EvoForest School founded a tarmill to producelampoil Considered in researchliterature to be an unsuccsesful Tarfactory! In Finland app. 10 modern tarfactories in 1860’s

  21. Second wave of TarFactories • Producing lighter oily substances – by-products: tar, coal • FriisMachine Shop’s mantel owens 1890’s • Reasons for failures • Lack of venture capital • Lack of knowhow • Lack of equipmentproducers

  22. SimpletarvesselbyengineerRask • Hundredsaround the Lake Oulu in 1890’s • Poorpublic image – ruinedmanyfarmerseconomy • Lack of knowhow

  23. Polytechnic Institute (Aalto) • Ernst ’Q’ Quist • Henrik A. ’Fish’ Wahlforss • Gust. ’Vicecount’ Komppa • Total synthesis of camphor 1903 • Kemisti-Kilta KK 1891 • Taavi ’Shit’ Hirn • New laboratory 1898

  24. Rockefeller’sworld • Standard Oil • Nobel Brothers • St. Petersburg • Using chemicallaboratories of HY & TKK • Finland is a tinypart of Empire – the catastroph in 1917 – 18 • Pineresinproduction • Gust. Komppa • Dependanceovermotorfuels • Notneeded in navalengines • Aircraft engines • In Finland oil products notreallyneededbefore 1918!

  25. Motorcarpowerplant • at 1900 • 22 % combustionengine • 40 % steamengine • 38 % electric • Firsthybrid Porsche 1902

  26. Producing of Resin Rawmaterial for lampoilproduction Russian Carelia East Germany In Finland 1918 1 milj. kg collected Rostock, Wiethagen

  27. Löytöjoki TarFactory 1924 - 39 • J.A. Heikkinen ”Old manfrom Halla” • Gustaf Komppa • Pilotplantproducing • Lightoilysubsances • Lampoil • 1918 project TKK • Sulo Hintikka – lampoilproduction Sulo Hintikka, 1st doctor of TKK (Aalto) 1912

  28. Komppa-process • Highpressurehydrogenation • Friedrich Bergius<– coal • Gust. Komppa <– peat • State hightechnologyproject 1926 -> • Kordelin’sfoundation • Success 1929, patents • Productionduring the winterwar

  29. Taroilproject • Sweden and Finland in trouble • Pinetarproject • Equipment: Sweden • Know-How: Finland KCL • Jaakko Murto • Wood alcoholproject • Heinola (Puukemia Oy) • Naantali Oil-harbour 1943 • Refinerylater

  30. Duchy of Finland – Land of Iron [and absolutely no Gold] Aurora Karamsin (Demidov) Mining and metallurgy

  31. Office for miningindustries 1823 • General GoverneurFabian Steinheil– geologist and chemist • Severallittleironores in Southern Finland • Mines – Kaivoksela, Tahvonlahti etc. • Nils Gustaf Nordenskiöld • LeineperiIron Mill, statepilotplant 1820’s • Workersdidsabotage (Luddits!) • N.G. Nordenskiöld wasabout2 yearslatecomparing to Bessemer’swork in 1850’s • Largestindustries in Russia: Count Leuchtenbergsgalvanoplastischeinstitut in St. Petersburg, Demidovsmining and metallurgicalworks, Ural mountains

  32. Investments • City of Tampere – taxfree city of industry • Viljakkala Haveri Mine • James Finlayson • Margaret Finlayson • Haveri oretoophosphorous • Tampere a city of textilemillsuntil 1870’s • Manchester of Finland • British Engineers • John Finlayson • DawidCowie • John Barker • Fiskars Machine Shop • Made Europe’slargestwaterwheel for Finlayson in 1830’s

  33. OurLand • National anthem: Ourland is poor, and thiswayitshallbe, there is no gold (oranythingelse) • Johan Ludwig Runeberg • Ojamo and Haveri diedaway to the end of the Century. Pitkäranta Cuwaspromicingbutfainted • GeologicalSurvey (GTK) kept on doing the mapping of the rock base of Finland • Sameagain in 1980’s!

  34. A Strangehill-Outokumpu • 1912 • Machinist Anderson • Sample to Sederholm • Firstonelost in the Post office! • The Great War 1914 • Independent Finland 1917 • No money for investments • Hackman & Co • State ownedcompanylate 1920’s • Economicaldisaster in 1920’s • HybinetteProcess • Imatra CopperRefinery 1936

  35. Independent Finland 1917 • Dorpatpeacenegotiations (Tartu Ülikooli!) • Petsamo • WorldslargestNiore 1922 • No possibilities to investrequiredamount of capital • No educatedmetallurgists and miningengineers • INCO/MOND • Program for educatingmetallurgists/ processengineers

  36. FlashSmelt-process • Failed in Canada, Soviet Union Jugoslavia • Must in Finland 1946 • Lack of basicenergy– Soviet Union took the Rouhialapowerplant (30% of electricity) • Väinö I. Sihvonen, prof. of electrochemistry • Over 200 scientific publications • Died in air raid during the Winter War • Expert in burning reactions • Students Petri Bryk, John RyselinOutukumpu Ltd. John Ryselin Petri Bryk • First branch of High Technology Industry • Process steering & automatisation, Computer technology etc.