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Ms. Susan M. Pojer Horace Greeley HS Chappaqua, NY PowerPoint Presentation
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Ms. Susan M. Pojer Horace Greeley HS Chappaqua, NY

Ms. Susan M. Pojer Horace Greeley HS Chappaqua, NY

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Ms. Susan M. Pojer Horace Greeley HS Chappaqua, NY

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  1. La Belle Epoque[1871-1914]:“The Beautiful Era” Ms. Susan M. PojerHorace Greeley HS Chappaqua, NY

  2. Characteristics of La Belle Epoch • Materialism + Consumerism • Higher standard of living • Development “zones” • Inner Zone GB, Fr, Ger, Belgium, No. Italy, W Austria • Outer Zone  Ire., Iberian Pen., most of Italy, Europe eastof Ger. • Underdeveloped Zone  Afro-Asia

  3. Characteristics of La Belle Epoch • Increased European Population • Jobs? Opportunity? Food? • Growth of Cities & Urban Life • Migration from Europe • 1850-1940  60 million left Europe • Went to  US, Argentina, Brazil, Canada, Australia/N. Zeal. • “Second” Industrial Revolution • Steel + Electricity + Chemicals • Internal combustion & diesel engines. • Trains, autos, planes, submarines, subways, steel steamships

  4. Characteristics of La Belle Epoch • “Second” Industrial Revolution Britain  “The World’s Industrial Workshop” • Corporations  limited liability of investments. • Mass production > Std. of Living rise. • Free Trade [Promoted by GB & USA] • World Markets [Global Economy, Part II] • Advance of Democracy: Extension of the vote to the working class… first ♂, then ♀ • Creating “welfare state” = Govt role?

  5. Characteristics of La Belle Epoch • Appeal of Socialism… Why? • By 1880s, most socialist parties were Marxist based [esp. Ger. & Fr.] • Not very successful in England… Why? • Faith in Science Alone • Scientist coined by Wm. Whewell (GB) • Science at the core of industrialization -“New Wonders” of daily life, inventions. • Charles Darwin: Origin of Species [1859] • Evolution >“Survival of the Fittest”

  6. Characteristics of La Belle Epoch • Faith in Science Alone [con’t.] • “Social Darwinism”  Herbert Spencer… true? • TH Huxley disagrees, says ethical development contradicts this, nature only ‘evolves’ • Eugenics: Racial Hierarchy • Newtonian Science turned on its head • Einstein  “Theory of Relativity”  nature & energy were separate & distinct. • Max Planck  Quantum Physics

  7. Characteristics of La Belle Epoch • Faith in Science Alone [con’t.] • Professionalization of “new” “Social Sciences…Anthropology, Archeology… • Psychology: Explain behavior / mind • Ivan Pavlov  conditioned responses • Sigmund Freud  Psychoanalysis • The Interpretation of Dreams [1900] • Id (impulse) v. Ego (conscious mind controls behavior) v.Superego (learned morality)

  8. Characteristics of La Belle Epoch • New Trends in Philosophy • Agnosticism: No proof of God, but maybe • Nihilism: Nothing knowable, no morals, progress depends on rejecting today’s values, morality is individually decided • Friedrich Nietzsche • Übermensch  “Super Man” • Existentialism: Sören Kierkegaard • Existence = Experience is unexplainable • Freedom of choice, individual responsibility & consequences • Religious Struggles: Modern vs.Fundamental

  9. Characteristics of La Belle Epoch • Anti-Semitism: Overt + Covert • Dreyfus Affair • Theodore Herzl > DerJudenstaat [The Jewish State], 1896 • “Father of Modern Zionism” • Women’s Movement: Politics + Society • Emmeline Pankhurst + Josephine Butler • The “New” Imperialism: Conquest of Africa • Militarism  glorification of war • Industry R&D >> Weaponry >> Conflict?