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  1. Imperialism OGT Social Studies Prep

  2. Imperialism is the policy of powerful countries seeking to control the economic and political affairs of weaker countries or regions. Countries took control of territories through imperialism to gain power and wealth. The global impact of imperialism in the late 1800s and early 1900s included the modernization of Japan, political and social reform in China, and the exploitation of African resources. The colonizers and the people who were colonized had different perspectives on how to deal with language, natural resources, labor, political systems, and religion. It’s Important

  3. The United States gained control of foreign lands through imperialistic policies that had an impact on the people living in those lands. The Spanish-American War brought the United States into the affairs of countries in East Asia, the South Pacific, the Caribbean, and Central America. It’s Important

  4. IN AFRICA… European nations imperialized Africa for the resources that could be found there. Oil, coal, iron ore, copper, gold, and diamonds European imperialistic nations – Britain, France, Germany, Spain, Belgium, and Portugal – all raced to establish colonies in Africa. Colonies = Economic Power, Prestige, Political Power to countries who held them. Imperialism – World Studies

  5. In Africa… In the 1880s - European countries nearly went to war with one another as a result of competition over land claims and economic rights. In 1885 – They divided Africa among themselves without consulting the African people they would rule. Colonial rule of Africa - Brought wealth and power to Western nations - Devastated traditional ways of life in Africa European languages, customs, dress and religion were seen as civilizing forces to be applied to native Africans. Please go to Ms. E’s web page at www.copley-fairlawn.org/estright under the Social Studies OGT Prep page for a detailed PowerPoint about European Imperialism in Africa. Imperialism – World Studies

  6. In China… China became a site of economic competition in the 1800s. Britain, France, Germany, Japan, & Russia established spheres of influence in China. Sphere of Influence – Region in which a country had exclusive rights to invest in mines, railroads, and factories. The US did NOT have a sphere, but insisted on the same trading rights as those granted to other countries by China. Open Door Policy – Letter sent from Sec. of State, John Hay, urging the European powers who had spheres of influence in China open to others/each other. - Meant to prevent colonization in China - No formal colonies BUT China was clearly dominated. Imperialism – World Studies

  7. For 2000+ years, China was ruled by emperors… Boundaries shifted through the years… So did the families holding title of emperor… Empire endured attacks from outside and unrest on inside… Basic structure of China remained (largely) unchanged for all those years. Imperialism – WS - China

  8. China changed when imperialistic powers attempted to tap into China’s vast markets and abundant resources… Dynasty (that had governed for 200 years) began to lose control. Disagreements among Chinese over how to deal with foreign influence. Taiping Rebellion – 1851-1864 – Millions of Chinese died; Rebellion stopped short of full revolution; Resulted in political reforms. Imperialism – WS - China

  9. By 1890s – Japan, Britain, Russia, Germany, and France – ready to carve up China for colonies Nationalism increased among Chinese – United Chinese against outsiders. 1900 – Boxer Rebellion – Chinese Nationalists = Boxers Boxers targeted Europeans & Americans for death Took army of soldiers from 8 countries (including US) to crush the Boxers. Chinese rulers tried to reform and modernize, but it was too late. Imperialism – China – WS & US

  10. Nationalist feelings increased; Revolutionary groups gained strength. 1905 – United League – Goals: Throwing out foreigners, replacing old rulers with democratic gov’t and improving lives of common Chinese citizens. Imperialism – China - WS

  11. October 1911 – Chinese troops who supported the United League revolted. By December – Southern & Central provinces in China declared independence Sun Yixian elected president of Republic of China February 12, 1912 – last emperor of China gave up throne (6 yr old Pu Yi) Imperialism – China - WS

  12. Effects of 1911 Chinese Revolution of 1911 Significance: Brought an end of one of the world’s oldest political systems. Former revolutionaries formed Kuomintang. Kuomintang defeated in 1949 by Chinese Communists led by Mao Zedong (after 4 year civil war). In 40 years, China went from empire to republic to People’s Republic of China – one of the world’s last communist states. People’s Republic of China – vast size, HUGE population, powerful economy – one of the world’s dominant nations. Imperialism – China - WS

  13. IT’S IMPORTANT: The US gained control of foreign lands through imperialistic policies that had an impact on the people living in those lands. The Spanish-American War brought the US into the affairs of countries in East Asia, the South Pacific, and Central America. Imperialism - US

  14. IMPERIALISM involves extending power by gaining territorial, economic, or political control over other nations. Until the late 1800s, the US tried to stay out of foreign affairs. Toward the end of the 19th century (Late 1800s), several factors contributed to America’s emerging interest in foreign lands (swinging away from isolationism). Imperialism - US

  15. Americans were migrating to new lands in North America Alaska purchased in 1867 from Russia. Needed new markets for goods. Manifest Destiny – idea that the US was destined to expand across North America to the Pacific – taken further… Americans believed they should spread democracy. This perceived moral obligation often resulted in racist and ethnocentric attitudes. (In other words, our way is right – not yours.) Imperialism - US

  16. Technology played an important role in America’s expansion. Steamships and telegraphs were a link to the world beyond broad oceans. US didn’t want other nations taking control of strategic locations that could be naval bases or re-fueling stations. Monroe Doctrine – Stated US would not tolerate European intervention in the Americas; US would intervene to help countries close gain independence. Imperialism - US

  17. Cubans wanted independence from Spain; Spain refused. Americans sympathized with Cubans; We had wanted independence from British. Americans had business interests in Cuba . Early 1898 – US sent battleship Maine to Havana harbor to protect American citizens & property Early February – Maine exploded and sank! 260 sailors killed Imperialism – US – Spanish-American War

  18. YELLOW JOURNALISM – Type of writing that tried to stir up emotions of readers; News reporting , often biased or untrue, that relies on sensational stories and headlines; Used by Joseph Pulitzer (Publisher of NY World) and William Randolph Hearst (Publisher of NY Journal) • Got American public stirred up and wanting to get even with Spain. Congress declared war on Spain in April of 1898 Imperialism – US-Spanish-American War

  19. Causes: American sympathy with Cubans wanting independence Spanish atrocities (reconcentration) aroused sympathy, too. American business interests in Cuba Maine Explosion Yellow Journalism Effects: US bought Philippines (cheap from Spain), took over Puerto Rico and Guam. Cuba gained independence from Spain; became protectorate of US Marked the United States’ entrance onto the WORLD SCENE (international stage) Spanish-American War

  20. By 1900 – US territories included Hawaii, Philippines, American Samoa (Germany had the other part), Guam & Puerto Rico) FOREIGN POLICY (with dealing with Latin America) Theodore Roosevelt Big Stick Diplomacy Roosevelt Corollary – Extension/Addition to the Monroe Doctrine – Gave US “international police power” – stated that the US had a right to intervene in Latin America to preserve law & order. William Howard Taft Dollar Diplomacy – Gave money instead of bullets to help LA countries. Woodrow Wilson Moral Diplomacy – Tried to talk things out with leaders of LA countries, including Mexico. • These diplomatic relations were not effective with dealing with Mexico (Pancho Villa) • US almost went to war with Mexico BUT WWI began and we ended up focusing on that instead. Imperialism - US

  21. “What happened to our noninvolvement policy? Now our U.S. soldiers are invading island countries halfway around the world.” Which of the following is an island country to which the speaker might be referring? • CUBA • NICARAGUA • THE PHILIPPINES • PUERTO RICO Practice Multiple Choice with quote.

  22. The Industrial Revolution sparked a second round of imperialism by European powers, especially in Africa and Asia. Identify & briefly describe 2 reasons why European nations practiced imperialism at this time in history. Practice Short Answer

  23. MORE TEST TAKING STATEGIES- General Strategies

  24. As you read and understand the question, try to guess what the answer will be. Remember that several answer choices are wrong AND once you start reading them, your mind will immediately become cluttered with answer choices designed to throw you off. Your mind is typically the most focused immediately after you’ve read the question and taken in what it’s about (the contents). If you can, try to PREDICT what the correct answer will be. USE YOUR HISTORICAL KNOWLEDGE!!! (You may be surprised at what you can predict!) Look for an answer that goes along with your prediction. Make Predictions

  25. Only pick answer choices THAT ANSWER THE QUESTION. (Test writers can create some great sounding answers that are WRONG.) Don’t pick an answer just because it sounds right, or that you believe to be true. The choice MUST ANSWER THE QUESTION. Once you’ve made your choice, check it against the question. Make sure you didn’t misread the question and the answer choice DOES answer the GIVEN question. Answer the Question

  26. After reading the 1st answer choice, decide if you think it sounds correct or not. If it does NOT, move on to the next answer choice. If it DOES, mentally mark that answer choice. (This doesn’t mean that you’ve DEFINITELY selected it as your answer choice. It just means that it’s the BEST YOU’VE SEEN SO FAR.) Go on to the next answer choice. If the next answer choice is BETTER than the choice you’ve already selected, mentally mark the NEW answer choice as your BEST GUESS. The 1st answer choice you selected becomes your standard. Every other answer choice must be benchmarked against that choice/standard. The choice is correct until proven otherwise by another choice beating it out. Once you’ve decided no other choice seems as good, DO ONE FINAL CHECK! Make SURE that your answer choice answers the given question. Benchmark

  27. Don’t discount any of the information provided in the question. Every piece of information may be necessary to determine the correct answer. In most cases, the info in the question is not there to throw you off (unlike with answer choices). If 2 seemingly unrelated topics are discussed in the question, DON’T IGNORE EITHER. There’s most likely a relationship or it wouldn’t be included. You are probably going to have to determine what the relationship is to find the answer. Valid Information

  28. Don’t get distracted by a choice that is FACTUALLY TRUE. YOUR SEARCH IS FOR THE ANSWER CHOICE THAT ANSWERS THE QUESTION! STAY FOCUSED; Don’t fall for an answer that is true BUT INcorrect. ALWAYS go back to the question and MAKE SURE you’re choosing an answer that actuallyANSWERS THE QUESTION and is NOT just a true statement. (An answer choice CAN be factually correct, but it MUST ANSWER THE QUESTION ASKED.) 2 answer can both seem to be correct, so be sure to read ALL OF THE ANSWER CHOICES and MAKE SURE that you get the one that BEST ANSWERS THE QUESTION. Avoid “Fact Traps”

  29. If you are stumped by a question, remember this: THE QUESTION ITSELF CAN GIVE YOU MANY CLUES THAT WILL HELP YOU FIND THE CORRECT ANSWER. Watch for adjectives (words that describe) and nouns (person, place, thing, or idea) describing difficult terms/words you don’t recognize. (Regardless of if you completely understand a word or not, replacing it with a synonym either provided or one you’re more familiar with may help you understand what the question is asking.) Don’t wrack your brain about specific detailed information concerning a difficult word/term… Try to use mental substitutes (synonyms) that are easier to understand. Milk the Question

  30. DON’T JUST CHOOSE A WORD BECAUSE YOU RECOGNIZE IT! Test writers don’t put “make-believe” words on the test; so don’t think that just because you only recognize all the words in one answer choice means that that answer choice is the correct one. If you only recognize words in one answer choice, then focus on that one. Is it correct? (Try your best to determine if it’s correct.) If it’s correct, GREAT! If it’s not, ELIMINATE IT. Each word/answer choice you eliminate increases your chances of getting the question correct, even if you have to guess between unfamiliar choices. Trap of Familiarity

  31. ELIMINATE CHOICES AS SOON AS YOU REALIZE THEY ARE WRONG! (But be careful : ) ! ) Make sure you consider ALL of the possible answer choices. (Just because one seems right doesn’t mean that the next one won’t be better!) Test writers usually put more than one good answer choice for every question, SO READ ALL OF THEM. Don’t worry if you’re stuck between 2 that seem right. By getting it down to 2 choices, your odds of getting it correct are 50/50. Rather than wasting too, much time, play the odds. You’re guessing. Guess wisely. You’ve knocked out choices that you know are wrong. IF you have eliminated choices and you’re down to the last one and realize it’s wrong, DON’T PANIC! Start over and consider EACH choice again. (There will probably be something that you missed the 1st time through. You’ll realize it the 2nd time around.) Eliminate Answers

  32. If you are stumped on a question that seems to be too hard or difficult, don’t waste time… MOVE ON! BUT BEFORE YOU DO – REMEMBER – If you can quickly check for obviously incorrect answer choices, your chances of guessing correctly go up! Before you completely give up, at least try to knock out a couple of possible answer choices. Eliminate what you can and then guess at the remaining answer choices BEFORE MOVING ON. YOU NEED TO FILL SOMETHING IN ON THE OGT. LEAVE NOTHING BLANK! Tough Questions

  33. If you get stuck on a difficult question, spend a few seconds quickly brainstorming. Run through the complete list of possible answer choices. Look at each question and ask, “Could this answer the question satisfactory?” Go through each answer choice and consider it independently/ separately of the others. By systematically going through all possibilities, you may find something you would have otherwise overlooked. Remember: If you get stuck, it’s important to keep moving. Brainstorm

  34. Understand the problem. Read the question and answer choices carefully. Don’t miss the question because you misread the terms. You have plenty of time to reach each question and make sure you understand what’s being asked. REACH A HAPPY MEDIUM: Don’t waste too, much time; BUT, you MUST read carefully, so read efficiently. Read Carefully