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MIS Management Information Systems Syllabus. What I expect you to do!. 11 Labs. You must go to all 11. 2% penalty for first lab missed 5% for 2 nd 10% for 3 rd Automatic course failure if you miss a 4 th lab.

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11 labs
11 Labs
  • You must go to all 11.
    • 2% penalty for first lab missed
    • 5% for 2nd
    • 10% for 3rd
    • Automatic course failure if you miss a 4th lab.
  • Remember you can drop the course and take it in a semester where you are less busy.
slide3
Lab
  • Pre-lab quiz 20%
  • In-lab activity 50% (hard to makeup)
  • Post-lab question/activity 30%
  • If you miss a lab, you still have to make it up before the next lab period, otherwise you get a penalty and a zero.
pop quizzes is speaker series
Pop Quizzes & IS Speaker Series
  • About 10 pop quizzes on reading and the IS Speaker Series
    • You can use your notes
    • should be easy to get 100’s
      • Take notes while reading
      • Take notes while listening to IS Speaker Series
  • Attend IS Speaker Series talks
        • http://www.cs.siena.edu/News_&_Events/IS_Speaker_Series.php
    • Videos will be available in the library
lecture
Lecture
  • Eventually, I will stop using PowerPoint.
    • 70% of exam questions are answered in lecture
  • You can’t do well in this course unless you come to lecture
exams
Exams
  • Exams 1 and 2 given in class
  • Cumulative final exam
group project
Group Project
  • Propose an idea for how to improve a business using technology
    • Research the business and technology
    • Log your hours via Google Spreadsheet
  • Make an ePortfolio (individual)
  • Make a group Wiki (to share your research)
  • Make a group presentation about your idea
summary
Summary
  • Attend 11 labs
    • One miss won’t kill you
  • Attend lecture
    • 2-3 misses won’t kill you
  • Actual work
    • 11 pre-labs
    • 10 post-labs writeups
    • 10 pop quizzes
    • 1 group project (with individual component)
    • 2 in-class exams
    • 1 final exam
management information systems mis
Management Information Systems (MIS)
  • What does this term really mean?
  • Management
    • a major at Siena,
    • a good occupation.
    • the act of managing; handling, directing, controlling.

A well-known manager on TV

mis applies to many fields
MIS applies to many fields
  • More than just Information Systems used by Managers?
  • The study of systems that help with the management of information
  • The information could be for
    • Accounting
    • Finance
    • Marketing
    • Scientific Research
    • Computer Gaming

Madden 12 Football Player Management

mis helps build understanding
MIS helps build understanding
  • We will study the principles of transforming data into information and then beyond

Correctness

Wisdom

People

Understanding and developing principles and concepts

Knowledge

Computers and Systems

Understanding patterns

Information

Adding value, context, relationships, and patterns

Data

Understanding

a better course title for mis
A better course title for MIS
  • I would call this course…Computer Systems for Managing Information

Computer being used to manage information poorly.

why do you have to take mis
Why do you have to take MIS?
  • Chapter 1 answers this question (read it).
    • Your ability to manage information using technology will determine your success in any business field.
  • Contrary to media portrayals, high school-aged studentsare not masters of technology, but often clueless consumers of new technology

?

it vs is
IT vs. IS
  • First, does anyone know the difference between INFORMATION TECHNOLOGY andINFORMATION SYSTEMS ?
slide16

VS.

INFORMATION TECHNOLOGY

INFORMATION SYSTEMS

1. Computer hardware and 2. Software,

but also includes:

3. People

4. Processes, and

5. Data

Familiar Information Systems

Twitter

iTunes

Blackboard

Innovations in storing, transmitting, and sharing information

  • hardware devices like:
    • Telephone
    • Computer Printer
    • Wireless Network Router
  • Also includes software, languages, and protocols:
    • Photoshop, Java, Flash, HTML, HTTP, etc.
software is always part of bigger systems
Software is always part of bigger systems

Consider these examples

  • Twitter
    • Pointless without people?
  • iTunes
    • Little value without data (music, movies, etc.)
  • Blackboard
    • Useless without procedures
hardware is always part of bigger systems
Hardware is always part of bigger systems

Consider these examples

  • iPhone
    • Pointless without people
  • Solid State Hard Drive
    • No value without data (files, movies, etc.)
  • Xbox Kinect
    • Difficult to use without procedures
i nformation t echnology is part of i nformation s ystems
Information Technology is part ofInformation Systems

IS

IT

People users, administrators, owners, etc.

HardwarePC, iPad, Android Phone, RFID Scanner, Laser Printer, etc.

Datanumbers, words, images, video, etc;computerized (digital) or on paper

SoftwareExcel, Access, Blackboard, iTunesChrome, Windows 7, Oracle

Proceduresoften documented in writing

it is practically free
IT is practically free
  • Cost of labor and natural resources keep rising.
  • But, every 18 months, the cost of information technology decreases by nearly 50%
    • See Figure 1-1 in the book
  • Data communication and storage are so cheap that CEO’s consider it free.
    • Businesses leverage this free commodity.
    • And, consumers are happy to pay for it.
leveraging technology
Leveraging Technology
  • In 1992, I bought Metallica’s Black Album for $16.99 at store called Record Town.
  • Today, you can download new albums on iTunes for $9.99.
    • Information Technology makes delivering music cheaper
      • right or wrong?
    • This is great for the consumer
      • right or wrong?
how leveraging technology works
How Leveraging Technology Works
  • Those who purchase “cheap” songs on iTunes often
    • Pay $60-$100/month for their iPhone service
    • Pay $1000-3000 every three years for a MacBook
how leveraging technology works1
How Leveraging Technology Works
  • Consumers pay for Apple’s store (iTunes) by buying Apple hardware
  • Apple Corporation can sell music without
    • moving stuff in trucks
    • building a store in your town
    • hiring clerks
  • BTW: If you own a PC, Microsoft leverages consumers in many other ways.
famous quote
Famous quote
  • “Instead of learning how to program computerskids minds are beingprogrammed by computers.”
        • Who said it? When?
  • We rely so much on technology that it changes the way we think and behave.
    • This change is good if you are a master of technology
    • its bad if you are
      • a grunt user/employee
      • clueless consumer of technology
why i care
Why I care?
  • I teach Computer Science (CS) majors how toblow up your business job!
  • In CS, we build software systems that replace costly human labor to help businesses become more profitable
    • unless you have ideas on how to use information systems to improve business, you might not have a “thinking” career in business.
how will i help you
How will I help you?

By making you do lab activities where you will

  • Use computer systems to solve problems and manage information
  • Labs are important because
    • You get to actually do stuff
    • Then, you think about what you did
    • Then, I tell you why it was important

What lab might look like if I were handsome and smiled

why you should care about labs
Why you should care about labs.

You need to know

  • How to use information systems in non-routineways.
  • How information systems can help
    • Solve problems
    • Make better decisions
    • Create strategic advantages
  • What better way to learn this than to actually do it on computer?
will doing the labs make me a master of technology
Will doing the labs make me a master of technology?
  • No!
  • You have to do 5 other things
  • But, these things will also help you
    • get an A in the course and
    • avoid a grunt-like career with no job security
  • Do you want to know the 5 things?
1 read
#1 Read
  • Read the text book
  • Read the lab instructions
  • Read your own writing before you submit it
  • If you don’t understand what you are reading, read it again 2 more times!
    • And, if someone still has to explain it to you, read it a 3rd time again so you understand your misunderstanding

Abstract Reasoning

  • Reading hones your abstract thinking skill
  • Pictures & video are nice, but written words
    • help you imagine
    • help you build your own mental model of the world
  • If you rely on others to build a model for you,
    • You will not understand things as deeply
    • and, you’ll struggle to solve problems on your own
2 look at the world as a system
#2 Look at the world as a system

1. Goal

2. Observe

Input

Output

3. Action

Identify goals

Make honest observations about the world around you, and connect inputs with outputs

Take action to achieve your goal

2 look at the world as a system1
#2 Look at the world as a system

Input

Output

  • Goal: I want to get an A.
  • Observations:
    • Studied 2 hours for exam1 and got a B.
    • Studied 4 hours for exam2 and got a A-.
  • Input: hours studied
  • Output: grade

Why this helps

  • Some systems are poorly designed and unfair, some are fair and consistent.
  • Regardless, understanding how a system works is the key to controlling the system and achieving goals.

Connect input and outputs

3 share ideas and be open to criticism
#3 Share ideas and be open to criticism

McDonald’s Grunt:

  • Goal: To be a manager
  • Observation: We cook too many fries at once. By the time we sell them all, the last order is cold.
  • Idea: We should cook half as many fries, but twice as often.

Idiot Night Manager:

  • Criticism: Dude, we are going to have to work harder to fill the fryer twice as often.

Grunt:

  • Openness: You are right, but my goal is to make crispy, tasty fries and I’m not afraid to work harder.
4 experiment test what works the best
#4 Experiment (test what works the best)
  • Grunt:
    • Filling the fryer at 50% capacity but twice as often is too much work.
    • but filling it at 66% capacity but 1.5 times as often works out great
    • Also we can change the % based on how busy we are.
  • Idiot Night Manager:
    • Good job, nerd!
  • District Manager:
    • Since we hired Grunt, we are selling more fries
    • customers say the fries are fresher and crispier
  • Outcome:
    • Grunt gets promoted to “thinking” position
    • Idiot Manager has to follow Grunt’s nerdy fry cooking process any way.
5 identify bad ideas and do the right thing
#5 Identify bad ideas and do the right thing.
  • Student #1 goal
    • My goal is to minimize the amount of work to do on this project.
  • Student #1 idea
    • I will just copy text from Wikipedia.
  • Student #2 identifies bad idea
    • That’s plagiarism and it might lead to you having to do more work.

Outcome:

  • Student #1 gets
    • a zero on project,
    • fails the course
    • must take the course again
    • must redo project next semester anyway
  • Student #2 ends up doing a lot less work on the project than student #1.
how these steps apply to mis
How these steps apply to MIS

NOT

To leverage information technology and systems in your future career/business, you must often

  • use technology and systems in new/innovative ways,
    • do things you’ve never done before with very little help.
  • This is NOT easy.
  • It requires: reading, making systematic observations, collaborating, experimenting, and eventually doing the right thing.
how can i help to make it easy
How can I help to make it easy?
  • My job as your teacher is NOT to show you what buttons to press.
  • My job is to teach you non-routine skills, i.e., strategies for how to press the right buttons.
technology non routine skills
Technology & Non-routine skills
  • Abstract Reasoning
    • reading is essential in developing thoughts and ideas
    • technology cannot put thoughts in your mind like reading can
  • Systems Thinking
    • business itself is a system with input and output
    • business systems are rich with technology
  • Collaboration
    • sharing your ideas and handling criticism positively makes for better ideas
    • technology impacts how people collaborate
technology non routine skills1
Technology & Non-routine skills

4. Experimentation

  • try things, take risks, be curious
  • don‘t just use technology, experiment with it

5. Ethics & Integrity

  • doing the right thing will eventually pay off.
  • Technology makes it easier to cheat, but also easier to catch cheats
don t be afraid to press new buttons
Don’t be afraid to “press new buttons”

But, before you press a button, read and think

  • What is your goal?
    • Goals are often formalized in writing.
  • What does the button do?
    • Buttons are often described in documentation (i.e., writing).

After you press the button, think and reflect

    • Did the button do what is was supposed to?
    • Did pressing it get you closer to your goal?
chapter 1 take away
Chapter 1 take away
  • Non-routine skills that are valued in MIS?
    • Abstraction
    • System Thinking
    • Collaboration
    • Experimentation
    • Ethics & Integrity (this one is mine)
good information systems vs bad ones
Good Information Systems vs. Bad ones
  • Dr. Breimer’s Goal: I want information about you on a roster cheat sheet so I can get to know you all better.
  • My system (a bad one):
    • Students make documents (Word)
    • Student upload them (Blackboard)
    • I download them and grade them (Blackboard)
    • I mash them up (Word)
my bad system
My bad system
  • People: Instructor and 30 students
  • Software: Word and Blackboard
  • Hardware: Your computers and mine
  • Processes: The pre-lab instructions (written) my process (in my head)
  • Data: Your names, majors, pictures, interesting facts about you, your goals
my bad system1
My bad system
  • Input: Information entered into 30 Word documents
  • Processing: A lot of cutting, pasting, screen capturing your photos, cropping them.
  • Output: My roster cheat sheet
  • Feedback: I keep track of how long it takes; it takes me about 1.5 hours to make my cheat sheet.
why is it bad
Why is it bad?

on your computer

on blackboard

on my computer

major take away
Major take-away
  • A better system can reduce the amount of work, but not necessarily for everyone involved.
  • In your career, do not think a system is bad just because it makes *you* do more work.
  • Companies care more about the aggregate work and you may be on the wrong end of the pyramid of success.
a bad system
A bad system
  • You and your partner are working collaboratively on a Word document
  • Goal: To share document with partner
  • Information System:
    • Software: Email
emailing attachments a bad system
Emailing attachments: a bad system

on your computer

partner’s inbox/sent mail

partner’s computer

your sent mail/inbox

V1

V1

V1

V1

V2

V2

V2

V2

V3

V3

V3

V3

using winscp a better system
Using WinSCPa better system?

your z: drive

partner’sz: drive

V1

V1

V2

V2

V3

V3

take aways from intro lab
Take-aways from Intro Lab
  • WinSCPis great way for you to access your lab work from home and copy a file for your partner.
  • ScreenHunteris a nice way to “take a picture” of your computer screen.
  • Google, when used thoughtfully, is perhaps the greatest software component ever created.
  • All of these are software components that can be part of bigger systems.
take aways from intro lab1
Take-aways from Intro Lab
  • The software and hardware you decide to use greatly impacts how a system works.
    • Software is often designed with a goal in mind.
  • The software designer’s goal and your goal in using it may be different
    • Email was not designed to help people collaboratively edit a document
    • Neither was WinSCP
    • Google Docs was
  • But, to innovate/improvise with the tools you have is key.
chapter 1 key topic
Chapter 1 Key Topic
  • What are the 5 Components of an Information System?
components of an information system
Components of an Information System

Actors

Instructions

Bridge

Hardware

Software

Data

Procedures

People

Human Side

Computer Side

Automation: Move work from human side to computer side

More difficult to change

components of an information system1
Components of an Information System
  • The benefits of automation is not just to do things automatically.
  • What are the real benefits of automation?

Human Side

Computer Side

Automation: Move work from human side to computer side

More difficult to change

Hardware

Software

Data

Procedures

People

2 big motivations behind is automation
2 big motivations behind IS automation

Agility

Growth

Procedures are often

ambiguous

not formally defined

tedious

difficult to follow

Replacing procedures with programs (software) helps business to grow

Business processes can be scaled –up easier if they are implemented with software or hardware.

People are often

    • slow to change
      • Often hard to retrain
  • Replacing people with computers (hardware) helps businesses become more agile.
    • Business processes can be changed easier if they are implement with hardware or software.
itunes as a system
iTunes as a System

Hardware

Software

Data

Procedures

People

Examples?

Examples?

Examples?

Examples?

Examples?

itunes as a system1
iTunes as a System

Hardware

Software

Data

Procedures

People

User devices:

iPhone

iPod

iPad

MacBook

MP3 Player

PC

Apple side:

Media Server

Infrastructure:

Network

Routers

User devices:

iTunes itself

Mac OS

Apple side:

Media Content Management System

Media itself

Music

Movies

TV Shows

Apps

Games

User:

Create account

Login

Buy song

Apple Side:

Add new song

Organize songs

Advertise new songs

Content Providers:

Upload song

Get money

User: Consumer who buys songs,

Apple :

System admins

Programmers

CSR

Marketers

Content Providers:

Artists, Record Studios, App Developers, Colleges

blackboard as a system
Blackboard as a System

Hardware

Software

Data

Procedures

People

Examples?

Examples?

Examples?

Examples?

Examples?

blackboard as a system1
Blackboard as a System

Hardware

Software

Data

Procedures

People

User devices:

PCLaptop

Admin side:

Web Server

Database Server

Infrastructure:

Network

Routers

User devices:

Web BrowserExcel

Admin side:

Blackboard system itself

Database tools

Student Grades

PowerPoint files

Word Documents

Assignments

Project Descriptions

Messages

Calendar items

Student:

Login

Submit assignment

Check grades

Faculty:

Enter grades

Upload project description

Admin side:Create courses

Enroll students

Students

Faculty

System Admins

slide60

VS.

Information System View

GeneralSystem View

Conceptual View (i.e., abstract)

8 properties:

Stakeholder

Goal

System Boundaries

Input

Processing

Output

Feedback

key in understanding systems

Control

Concrete & Real (i.e., not abstract)

5 components:

  • Hardware
  • Software
  • Data (bridge/center)
  • Procedures
  • People
itunes
iTunes

Stakeholder

Goal

Input

Processing

Output

Customer

Musician/Artist

itunes1
iTunes

Stakeholder

Goal

Input

Processing

Output

Customer

wants to buy a cheap song

Song selection, credit card number (money)

Check to see if card is valid,

Start download of song

Decoded audio file, can be copied on up to 8 devices (song)

Musician/Artist

Wants to sell their music

Artist account information, encoded audio file(song)

Create artist account, song added to system

Electronic funds added to account for each song sold (money)

itunes customer feedback
iTunes: Customer Feedback

Stakeholder

Goal

Input

Processing

Output

Customer

wants to buy a cheap song

Song selection, credit card number (money)

Check to see if card is valid,

Start download of song

Decoded audio file, can be copied on up to 8 devices (song)

Examples of Feedback:

Message: “LagyGada not found, did you mean Lady Gaga.”

Message: “you have $4.99 left on your gift card.”

Message: “this song is authorized on 5 devices.”

Message: “5 minutes left to download song.”

feedback from a user customer perspective
Feedback from a user/customer perspective
  • Messages that let you know what is happening
  • Information about your usage of the system
    • Is your input good?
    • Is your output on the way?
  • Helps you
    • correct mistakes
    • enter input
    • understand the output
itunes artist content provider feedback
iTunes: Artist (content provider) Feedback

Stakeholder

Goal

Input

Processing

Output

Musician/Artist

Wants to sell their music

Artist account information, encoded audio file (song)

Create artist account, song added to system

Electronic funds added to account for each song sold(money)

Examples of Feedback:

Message: “Your song X has been purchased 74 times.”

Message: “County is not a valid category for song X.”

Message: “You have not uploaded an image for your band.”

Message: “5 minutes left to upload song Y.”

feedback from an artist perspective
Feedback from an artist perspective
  • Messages that let you know what is happening
  • Information about your usage of the system
    • Is your input good?
    • Is your output on the way?
  • Helps you
    • correct mistakes
    • enter input
    • understand the output
key concept feedback is relative to the stakeholder goal
Key Concept: Feedback is relative to the stakeholder/goal.
  • Notice how similar the feedback is for customers and artists.
  • Why?
  • They are both the same kind of stakeholder.
    • Both users of iTunes.
    • Symmetric goals
      • Buy song
      • Sell song
  • But, iTunes has another stakeholder! Who?
itunes system owners perspective
iTunes: System Owners perspective

Stakeholder

Goal

Input

Processing

Output

Apple Corporation

Sell media (music, apps, movies, etc.)

Provide content to add value to iPhone, iPads, etc.

New features

New types of media

Create new user accounts Add new media

Promote media

Increasedusage, exposure, market share

Increased

sales (money)

  • Examples of Feedback:
  • Top selling songs, shows, apps, etc.
  • Login/usage report including top devices used (i.e., iPhone, iPod Touch, iPad, MacBook, PC, etc.)
  • Sales by media type (music, movies, etc.)
feedback from the system owner s perspective
Feedback from the system owner’s perspective
  • Messages that tell you
    • if the system is working
    • how well it’s working
    • how close you are to achieving a goal
  • Apple did NOT create iTunes to generate a sales report?
  • The sales report is feedback, not output.
pop quiz 1
Pop Quiz #1

Information Systems have 5 components.

  • What 2 are part of the human side?
  • What 2 are part of the computer side?
  • Which one is the bridge?
  • Describe Moore’s law?
why it matters
Why IT matters?

Aeronautical Technology

Information Technology

Computer of today are

1000 times faster than the ones from the 80’s

1/4th the cost

Cost less than the electricity to power them

Jet liners today are actually

  • Slower than ones from the 80’s
  • More expensive to build
  • Higher total cost of ownership
system boundaries data flow
System Boundaries & Data Flow

1. Goal: Make a profit off the selling of music

2. Stakeholder: Apple Corp.

3. Information System Boundaries

8. Control:

New Features

People:

Customers

Musicians

Hardware:

Media Server

User devices

7. Feedback:

Usage Reports

Software:

iTunes

Data:

Songs

Account Info

Procedures:

Buy song

Sell song

4. Input:

More musicians

5. Processing: Charge customers, distribute songs, organize musicians, promote

6. Output:Electronic Funds

lady gaga perspective
Lady Gaga Perspective

1. Goal: Sell my music

2. Stakeholder: Lady Gaga

3. Information System Boundaries

8. Control:

promote new song

People:

Customers

Admin

Hardware:

Media Server

User devices

7. Feedback: Top Selling Songs

Software:

iTunes

Data:

Songs

Account Info

Procedures:

Categorize

song

4. Input:

New songs

5. Processing: Charge customers, distribute songs, promote

6. Output:Electronic Funds

dissatisfied customer perspective
Dissatisfied Customer Perspective

1. Goal: Buy my favorite music

2. Stakeholder: iTunes Customer

3. Information System Boundaries

7. Feedback: “AC/DC not found”

8. Control:

Pick a new song

Or stop using iTunes

People:

AdminMusician

Hardware:

Media Server

User devices

Software:

iTunes

Data:

Songs

Account Info

Procedures:

Create newaccount

4. Input:

Song Selection

5. Processing: Charge customers, distribute songs, promote

6. Output:A digital song

satisfied customer perspective
Satisfied Customer Perspective

1. Goal: Buy my favorite music

2. Stakeholder: iTunes Customer

8. Control:

Buy an iPod so I can enjoy Buckethead on the go

3. Information System Boundaries

7. Feedback: “Buckethead album on sale”

People:

AdminBuckethead

Hardware:

Media Server

User devices

Software:

iTunes

Data:

Songs

Account Info

Procedures:

Create newaccount

4. Input:

Credit Card #

Song Selection

5. Processing: Charge customers, distribute songs, promote

6. Output:A digital song

key concept feedback is not output
Key Concept: Feedback is not output
  • “you have $4.99 left on your gift card.”
    • Consumers do NOT login to iTunes to find out how much money they have left on a gift card.
    • They spend the gift card
  • “County is not a valid category for your song.”
    • Artists to NOT login to iTunes to figure out how to spell “Country.”
    • These messages are forms of feedback, not output!
slide78

VS.

Feedback

Output

is more directly connected to the goal or purpose of a system.

If you want to buy a song from a system, the output is the song.

What if the goal of a system is to generate a sales report?

All feedback is a form of output because it comes out of the system

But, feedback is specific output that

  • helps stakeholders use a system
  • tells owners if a system is working
great examples
Great Examples

Facebook

Cash Register System

Goal: In the 1980’s McDonalds wanted to track sales in real time so they invest in a computerized cash register system. Real time sales reporting will help them improve their supply chain.

Sales Report

Output or feedback?

Goal: In 2008, McDonalds wanted to use social networking to distribute coupons to better promote its new menu items. Hopefully sales for the new items will improve once the coupons are on Facebook?

Sales Report

Output or feedback?

great examples1
Great Examples

Blackboard

Blackboard

Goal: Professor wants to share grades with students.

Problem: Students keep asking for their grades in class

Investigation: Professor notices that students have never logged in.

Solution: Professor shows students how to login.

Student Login Report

Output or feedback?

Goal: Professor wants to track if students are clicking on the assigned case studies

Input: Case Studies (Word Documents)

Processing: Students login, navigate to case studies, click on document, Blackboard tracks the clicks.

Student Click Report

Output or feedback?

input vs control
Input vs. Control
  • Input is what you put into the system.
    • It is typically processed in some way, which directly or indirectly helps to produce output.
      • You input fuel into a car and the car produces forward movement
      • From Apple’s perspective, you put musicians and customers in iTunes and money comes out.
    • Input is usually a noun: Fuel, a song, a grade, money, raw data, potatoes, a musician.
  • Control is how you might change the system
    • Control is usually a verb.
examples of system control
Examples of System Control
  • Deep Fat Fryer: Raise the cooking temperature
  • Facebook: Restrict wall posting to only close friends
  • Blackboard: Show only my active courses
  • Assembly Line: Increase production by 20%
  • iTunes: Block artists from uploading Microsoft file formats
  • Furnace: Limit the output to 71 degrees
system control
System Control
  • Systems have variables that can be changed
    • And parameters that cannot be change
  • Variable:
    • Assembly line can be set to output between 0 and 20 cars per minute
    • Output is set to 10
  • Parameter:
    • 20 cars per minute is the maximum
critical thinking question
Critical Thinking Question

Setting the thermostat to 68 degrees

  • Is this an example of input, output, processing, control or feedback.
analysis technique
Analysis Technique

Setting the thermostat to 68 degrees

  • First ask two questions:
    • Who is the stakeholder?
    • What is their goal?
analysis technique1
Analysis Technique

Setting the thermostat to 68 degrees

  • Who is the stakeholder? Me
  • What is their goal?To keep the room temperature at 68 degrees
analysis technique2
Analysis Technique

Setting the thermostat to 68 degrees

    • “setting” is a verb
    • Could be processing or control
  • Control can change/invoke processing but may not produce output.
  • Processing directly leads to output.
    • What if there is no fuel?
    • What if the temp is already 68 degrees?
    • “Burning fuel” is the process
    • “Heat” is the output.
analysis technique3
Analysis Technique

Setting the thermostat to 68 degrees

    • “68 degrees” is a noun, a number, a temp value
    • Could be input, output, or feedback.
  • Are you putting this value into the system our does the system spit out this number?
  • Does this tell you if the system is meeting the goal?
special topic
Special Topic
  • How are Information Systems used in throughout businesses?
  • Are there different types or categories?
information systems support all levels of a business s hierarchy
Information Systems support all levels of a business’s hierarchy

Strategic

Decision Making

Executive Level

Tactical Decision Making

Management Level

Business ProcessesOperations Level

information systems support all types of employees

CEO

Information Systems Support all typesof employees

President

Strategic

Decision Making

Executive Level

VP Finance

Research

Director

District Manager

Tactical Decision Making

Management Level

Dean

Production Manager

Designer

Night Manager

Account Supervisor

Graphic Artist

Teacher

Business ProcessesOperations Level

Assembly Line Worker

Cashier

abstract thinking experimentation
Abstract Thinking & Experimentation
  • Be aware of your company’s goal in using Information Systems
    • Don’t mistaken your ignorance for a stupid system.
  • Read the system’s instructions, help documents, and manual if available.
    • And, use the web to find answers
  • Don’t be afraid to experiment with systems
    • If you fail, backtrack and try again
    • Try to find the best process to achieve your goal.
      • Don’t just settle on a process that works
computer information systems first supported the management level
ComputerInformation Systems first supported theManagement Level

Early 1980’s

Strategic

Decision Making

Executive Level

Paper Reports

Spreadsheet Program

Data Import

Store Information in Computer Files instead of Paper Files

Raw Data Entry

Business ProcessesOperations Level

management demanded specialize systems and pushed data entry to operational level
Management demandedspecialize systems andpushed data entry toOperational Level

Late 80’s

Strategic

Decision Making

Executive Level

Paper Reports

Accounting Information System

Electronic Reports

Raw Data Entry

Data Entry System

each manager wanted their own custom system for their functional area
Each manager wantedtheir own custom system for theirFunctional Area

Late 1980’sto early 90’s

Strategic

Decision Making

Executive Level

Financial Information System

Accounting Information System

Production Information System

Account Data Entry System

FinanceData Entry System

Inventory Data Entry System

Assembly Line

Control System

executives wanted integrated real time information no more paper reports
Executives wantedintegrated, real-time information(no more paperreports)

Mid 1990’s

ExecutiveInformation System

Financial Information System

Accounting Information System

Production Information System

Account Data Entry System

FinanceData Entry System

Inventory Data Entry System

Assembly Line

Control System

functional systems
Functional Systems
  • In in the early 1990’s, Information Systems were focused on the narrow needs of specific Functional Areas
    • Accounting – Inventory Control
    • Finance – Investment Reporting
    • Operations - Production Control
    • Human Resources – Benefit Management
    • Marketing – Sales Management
enterprise systems
Enterprise Systems
  • Executives notice that
    • fast, accurate information gave their company a strategic advantage.
  • Money was being spent on very similar systems for each Functional Area
  • Could Accounting and Financeuse the same system?
    • Could all the systems be integrated?
studying systems
Studying Systems
  • Large companies had so many information systems that you could actually study them like animals.
  • Mammals, Birds, Reptiles, Fish, etc.
    • Different families
      • Different species
  • This is called a taxonomy
    • helps you understand similarity and difference
  • Information Systems also have a taxonomy.
large companies replaced many functional systems with one large enterprise system
Large companies replaced many “functional systems” with one large “enterprise system”

Late 90’s and2000’s

ExecutivePortal

Enterprise

System

(central database)

HR

Reports

Financial Reports

Marketing

Reports

Accounting

Reports

Production Reports

Data Entry Framework

Operations & Production

Finance

Accounting

Marketing

HR

cmcc lab
CMCC Lab
  • Computer Mediated
  • Communication (early innovations)
    • email
    • instant messaging
  • Collaboration (more recent innovations)
    • shared documents
    • digital whiteboard
cmcc ecs
CMCC  ECS

Enterprise Collaboration Systems

  • Companies had many independent systems in different departments
    • Email (Outlook Express)
    • Scheduling (r25 system)
    • Video & Teleconferencing (Cisco system)
  • Companies now value having one unified system
    • Outlook (email, scheduling, task management)
    • Lotus Notes (same)
    • Google Apps
cmcc lab group project
CMCC Lab & Group Project

What you needed to do in lab..

  • Worklogcomplete and shared with me
  • Google Calendar complete with your schedule
    • Reoccuring group meeting (5 of you should be free)
    • One meeting with me in March (2 of you should be free)
  • About Us page on Google Site with links to each group member’s ePortfolio
cmcc post lab
CMCC Post Lab!
  • Ignore the Post-lab on Blackboard!
    • We are doing a special post-lab
  • Project Proposal
    • Each team member will list companies, technologies, and one idea.
  • Due next Monday/Tuesday
    • Then, meet with your team and agree on the “best” idea.
  • Preliminary research and final “idea” are due by February 29th
taxonomy of systems
Taxonomy of Systems
  • Large companies had so many information systems that you could actually study them like animals.
  • Mammals, Birds, Reptiles, Fish, etc.
    • Different families
      • Different species
  • This is called a taxonomy and it helps you better understand the similarity and difference between animals.
  • Information Systems also have a taxonomy.
classic taxonomy of information systems
Classic Taxonomy of Information Systems

All Information Systems

Operational Systems:

Systems that Support Operations

Management Systems:

Systems that Support Management

EIS

ExecutiveInformation

Systems

DSS

DecisionSupport

Systems

MIS

ManagementInformation

Systems

ECS

EnterpriseCollaboration

Systems

TPS

Transaction Processing

Systems

PCS

ProcessControl

Systems

functional vs enterprise
Functional vs. Enterprise
  • An attribute of a system, not a category in taxonomy.
    • Analogy: Some lizards are Herbivores, some Carnivore, and some Omnivores.
    • Some DSS’s can be Functional, some Enterprise, and some Cross-Functional.
  • Functional
    • Tailored to the goals of one functional business unit (Accounting, Marketing, HR, etc.)
  • Enterprise
    • Tailored to the goals of the entire company; typically used by all units
  • Cross-functional
    • Tailored to two or more functional business units, but not all.
another taxonomy
Another Taxonomy

All Information Systems

Cross-Functional Systems:

Two or more area, but not all

Enterprise Systems:

Integrates all functional areas

Functional Systems:

Focused on one functional area

EIS

ExecutiveInformation

Systems

ECS

EnterpriseCollaboration

Systems

MIS

ManagementInformation

Systems

DSS

DecisionSupport

Systems

TPS

Transaction Processing

Systems

PCS

ProcessControl

Systems

transaction processing system tps

0

Transaction Processing System (TPS)
  • Helps to manage transactions
    • ATM Machine System
      • Banking Transactions
    • Cash Register System
      • Point of Sale Transactions
    • Accounting System – Checking Account Transactions
    • Even Pay-per-view or OnDemand is a TPS
  • What functional areas use TPS?
    • Accounting, Finance, Operations, Marketing, Human Resources.
process control systems pcs

0

Process Control Systems (PCS)
  • Monitors and Controls Production Processes (duh)
    • Often Industrial/Manufacturing Processes
  • Examples:
    • Petroleum Refining
    • Power Generation
    • Automobile Manufacturing
    • Making French Fries
enterprise collaboration systems ecs

0

Enterprise Collaboration Systems (ECS)
  • Supports Operations (Surprised?)
  • Teamwork, communication, and collaboration
  • Examples:
    • E-mail
    • Chat
    • Video Conferencing
    • Calendaring
    • Journaling
    • Workflow
    • File Sharing
management information system mis

0

Management Information System (MIS)
  • Supports Management (duh?)
  • Analysis & Reporting
    • Charts, Graphs, Summary Tools
  • Usually connected to TPS and PCS systems.
  • Examples:
    • Banner – Manages College Information (Siena uses it)
    • Spreadsheet (Excel) – One of the first and most basic
      • Now considered a tool that is part of a system
    • Oracle's Corporate Performance Management
decision support system dss

0

Decision Support System (DSS)
  • What-if Analysis, Decision Modeling, Scenario Building, Highly interactive, ad hoc.
  • Most DSS’s are custom developed for specific companies; very few out-of-the-box products.
  • One Example:
    • Enterprise Decision Manager 2.0  Fair Isaac Corporation
executive information systems eis

0

Executive Information Systems (EIS)
  • Supports high-level strategic management
  • Uses critical data from other systems (MIS and DSS).
  • Portal Concept: one place with links to all information
  • EIS’s integrate external information such as economic developments and news about related markets and competitors. Helps strategic decision making, not just tactical.
    • Tactical – doing things the right way right
    • Strategic – doing the right things
information flow

Executives

Enterprise Collaboration System

Executive Information System

Managers

DSS

MIS

TPS

PCS

Operational Systems and Staff

0

Information Flow

SystemInformationFlow

InformationExchange/Communication

information flow1

0

Information Flow

Executives

Enterprise Collaboration System

Management

Executive Information System

Managers

DSS

MIS

Operations

TPS

PCS

Operational Systems and Staff

processes vs transactions
Processes vs. Transactions
  • Are transactions a type of business process or are processes a type of business transaction?
  • Do transactions involve processing?
  • Do processes involve transactions?
  • Confused?
example of a business process
Example of a Business Process
  • Toyota manufactures a Sienna Minivan
example of a business process1
Example of a Business Process
  • Exxon-Mobile refines crude oil into gasoline
process control systems pcs1
Process Control Systems (PCS)
  • PCS’s help to
    • control processes (duh!)
    • automate processes
    • speed up processes
    • make processes more cost effective
    • generate feedback to better understand processes
business processes involving computers and information
Business Processes involving Computers and Information
  • Siena College registers students for classes
  • Times Union Center checks tickets at door
  • Doctor’s Office schedules patient visit
the transaction component of information processing
The transaction component of information processing
  • Siena College bills a student for classes
  • Times Union Center sells tickets to customers
  • Doctor’s Office cashes check from patient
is this a process or a transaction
Is this a process or a transaction?
  • Lakisha says, “I want a Big Mac without Mayo!”
  • Mason enters order into McDonald’s Point-of-Sale Terminal, which he thinks is a stupid system.
  • Mason says, “duh, umm, that’ll be $3.75.”
  • Lakisha hands Mason a $5 bill
  • Mason hands Lakisha $1 and one quarter
  • 17 minutes later… Mason hands Lakisha an undercooked Big Mac with Mayo.
here is the real business process
Here is the real business process:
  • Lakisha says, “I want a Big Mac! with no mayo” and Mason enters this order into an Information System and then goes back to picking his nose.
  • 2 minutes later…Aiden stops thinking about Madden 2012, reads the order monitor and places beef patty on grill. After undercooking the burger, he moves it to a processing area
  • 3 minutes later…Hailey stops texting, reads her order screen but ignores “no mayo.” She places burger on bun with lettuce, tomato, and lots of mayo, and moves it to a receiving area, but forgets to press the “order complete” button so no one knows its ready.
  • 12 minutes later… Lakisha says, “Where the **** is my Big Mac?” and Mason hands Lakisha a Big Mac with lots of mayo that is undercooked and has been in the receiving area for 12 minutes.
process vs transaction
Process vs. Transaction
  • McDonald’s “makes” a hamburger
  • McDonald’stakes customer’s money and gives customer a hamburger.
process vs transaction1
Process vs. Transaction

A Process

A Transaction

Usually involves two entities

customer and business (or C2C, B2B, etc)

Things of value are exchanged

money for a product

money for a service

  • The steps involved in
    • transforming raw materials into a product
    • providing a service
      • FYI: taking a customer’s money is not a service
  • Information Processing: Transforming Raw Data into useful Information
process vs transaction2
Process vs. Transaction
  • While a transaction is part of a bigger business process, the transaction does not produce the product or service
    • Example: Handing a cashier money does NOT produce a hamburger.
    • What are the key processes in making a hamburger?
process or transaction
Process or transaction?
  • Customer use a credit card to buy their 40 year old brother a $120 StarWars light-saber from Amazon.com.
process or transaction1
Process or transaction?
  • Placing 10 lbs of sliced potatoes into a deep-fat fryer in order to cook French fries.
process or transaction2
Process or transaction?
  • Time Warner mails a customer a cable TV bill
process or transaction3
Process or transaction?
  • Toyota printing 1000 payroll checks for the assembly line workers at a plant in Ohio.
process or transaction4
Process or transaction?
  • Siena department heads
    • develop a schedule of classes and
    • assign professors to teach the classes.
  • Students register for classes.
  • These processes were hell before information systems could help
process control systems pcs2
Process Control Systems (PCS)
  • Information Systems that help control processes, not transactions.
  • Is a cash register a PCS?
what is a cash register these days
What is a cash register these days?

Functionality/Capabilities

    • Store money in a drawer
    • Swipe/read a credit card
    • Connect to VISA/MC/AE
    • Scan a product’s bar code to get price
    • Calculate the amount of change
  • These capabilities
    • Have nothing to do with making products orservices
    • Have everything to do with transaction of the product.
bored offended
Bored? Offended?
  • The examples I’m giving you are intentionally simple to eliminate confusion.
  • Soon we will look at very complex systems and you will be challenged.
pcs tps mis is common
PCS + TPS + MIS is common
  • IBM sells McDonalds a system which combines a
    • Cash Register System (example of TPS) with an
    • Order Processing System (example of PCS).
  • Together the TPS and PCS send data to a
    • Supply Chain Management System (example of MIS)
      • helps McDonalds streamline its distribution of raw materials (buns, burgers, potatoes).
critical thinking question1
Critical Thinking Question
  • Observation: The new deep fat fryer at McDonalds has a wireless network adapter.
  • Question: Is this the stupidest thing you’ve ever heard of or what?
  • Real Question: Why would you ever connect a deep fat frying to the Internet?
deep fat fryer as a hardware device
Deep Fat Fryer as a Hardware Device
  • Goals: Fresher fries, less waste
  • Fryer as PCS Data Source
    • Amount of Fries cooked is input to other systems
      • Helps you determine when to change the fryer oil more consistently
      • Compare to fries sold (from TPS) and you get feedback
        • If fries sold << fries cooked then we are cooking too many fries.
  • Fryer as a processing control device
    • Fryer tells you exactly how far to fill it.
    • Instead of cooking fries on demand, you always cook fries, but vary the “load” based on historical sales (from TPS).
control vs processing revisited
Control vs. Processing revisited
  • Comparing fries cooked to fries sold to calculate % waste is information processing
    • Cooking the fries is physical processing, not information processing.
  • % waste is feedback
    • Not necessary to cook fries but indicates if you are meeting your goal.
  • Looking at yesterdays data might not be enough to make good estimates.
  • Changing the system so it looks at the average for all weekdays is information system control.
  • Computing this average is information processing.
human reaction
Human Reaction
  • Imagine if you’ve been working at McDonalds for 10 years and now a device tells you exactly how many pounds of potatoes to put in the fryer.
  • How might you react?
    • How should you react?
summary1
Summary
  • Information Systems include IT (Hardware and Software) but also People, Data, and Procedures to follow.
  • Understanding General System requires identifying 8 key components: Goals, Stakeholders, System Boundaries, Input, Processing, Output, Feedback, and Control.
summary2
Summary
  • Historically, system have been designed for the 5 core functional units of business.
  • 6 different types of systems emerged: PCS, TPS, ECS, MIS, DSS, and EIS.
  • More recently, enterprise systems have been developed to integrate systems in all the units.
summary3
Summary
  • The output of one system could be the input to another.
  • The output of one system could be feedback to another.
  • Feedback is information that helps you
    • Improve a system
    • Change a system
    • Control a system
summary4
Summary
  • If you clearly define a system’s goals, boundaries, and stakeholder than it is easier to separate input, processing, output, feedback and control.
  • Just understanding the input and the output of a system is often enough to “figure it out” and “leverage it” to gain advantages.
  • Leveraging system or designing good systems requires understanding good and bad systems.