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Graduation Final Project. To obtain a bachelor’s degree in English with Emphasis in Translation. Prepared by Ramsis Mejía Aguilar. The Reversion of the Panama Canal Zone (1977) Human activities are changing and evolving. - To be updated (science, technology and globalization).

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graduation final project

Graduation Final Project

To obtain a bachelor’s degree in English with Emphasis in Translation

Prepared by Ramsis Mejía Aguilar

The Reversion of the Panama Canal Zone (1977)

Human activities are changing and evolving.

- To be updated (science, technology and globalization).

- The Contribution

- The Rationale

- Chapter One = Analysis and Importance

- Chapter Two = The Project and its Importance

- Chapter Three = Methodology

- Chapter Four = The Translation

- Chapter Five = Conclusion and Recommendations

  • The Problem
  • Origin of the Problem
  • Importance of the Problem
  • Procedure

To demonstrate what one has learned through the years in the career of English with Emphasis in Translation in an effective and useful way.

To develop a research and analysis work which allows me to obtain a bachelor’s degree and helps other students of English and translation with valuable information.


To extend my whole personal growth in terms of linguistic knowledge and skills.

To allow non-English speakers to reach out the information contained within the chosen text.

To contribute to the database in Spanish language which controls and manages the Panama Canal and International Studies Institute (Instituto del Canal de Panamá y EstudiosInternacionales) – University of Panama.

The Panama Canal and International Studies Institute(University of Panama).

identification definition and formulation of the problem
Identification, definition and formulation of the problem
  • Social Aspects
  • The Context
  • The “Port Management Textbook” series
    • The translation of the previous volumes
    • What is the series all about ?
    • The objectives of the series
Utilization of the series and its translations
    • The Panama Canal and International Studies Institute (University of Panama)
    • ORPE Documentary Center and “Belisario Porras” Files
the project
The Project
  • Intention
  • Hypothesis
  • Limitations and Boundaries
The singularity of Language
  • Translation and the Humankind
    • Translation in Panama
    • Bilingualism in Panama
  • General Evaluation
    • Analysis of the problems contained in the text
      • Lexical
      • Context
      • Structure
      • Translation
Translation Procedures
    • Transference
    • Naturalization
    • Cultural equivalent
    • Functional equivalent
    • Descriptive equivalent
    • Synonymy
    • Through-translation
    • Shifts or transpositions
    • Modulation
    • Recognized translation
    • Translation label
    • Compensation
    • Componential analysis
    • Reduction and expansion
application samples
Application Samples
  • Transference, plural
    • “The BLG has developed the cooperation with specialized productive service companies…”
    • = La BLG (Bremen Lagerhaus-Gesellschaft/Sociedad de depósitos de Bremen) ha venido desarrollando la cooperación con compañías productivas especializadas de servicios…
    • “Resources for the terminal operator are all types of equipment as container cranes, transtainers, straddle carriers, trailers, forklifts …”
    • = Los recursos, para el operador de la terminal, son todos los tipos de equipo, tales como grúas para contenedores, transtainers, máquinas porta contenedores de patas, remolques, montacargas...
application samples1
Application Samples
  • Transference, shift
    • “The labels contain beside barcode information also the Kanban no. of the Japanese supplier”
    • = Las etiquetas contienen el número Kanban del surtidor japonés, junto con la información del código de barra.
  • Naturalization
    • “(status: “vessel loaded” or “at sea”)”

= (estatus: “nave cargada” o “en ruta”)



application samples2
Application Samples
  • Cultural equivalent
    • “Functions performed by other port participants are applicable for tug operators, pilots, linesmen, tallies, etc., shortly for all institutions performing the management of their equipment and personnel related to the planning information of other parties”.
    • = Las funciones de otros participantes del puerto son aplicables a operadores de botes remolcadores, pilotos, trazadores de gálibos, anotadores de carga y descarga, etc., en fin, a todas las entidades que llevan a cabo una administración de sus equipos y de su personal, dependiendo de la información de planificación de las otras partes.
    • “- operation and idle times of each used appliance”.
    • = - Tiempo de operación y tiempo muerto de cada recurso que se utiliza…
application samples3
Application Samples
  • Functional equivalent
    • “This makes it much easier for the user, e.g., the port planner or terminal operator, to deal with their specific needs and demands “on the spot”.
    • = Esto hace mucho más fácil, por ejemplo, para el usuario, para el planificador del puerto o para el operador de la terminal, el bregar con exigencias y necesidades específicas de forma inmediata.
  • Functional equivalent, currency, two sentences instead of one
    • “Assume a container terminal where there are planners assigning equipment (e.g. van carriers) to transport orders. If, for example, a planner responsible for the loading/discharging of a vessel runs short with his equipment he will ask his colleague responsible for the truck or rail operation if it will be possible to get one from him for a certain period of time, there is a typical horizontal cooperation”.
    • = Supongamos que en una terminal de contenedores hay planificadores asignando órdenes. Si, por ejemplo, a un planificador responsable de la carga/descarga de una nave le resulta insuficiente el equipo asignado, el mismo solicitará a su colega, responsable de la operación de camiones y trenes, la posible obtención de alguno de estos recursos por un determinado periodo de tiempo. He aquí un típico caso de cooperación horizontal.
application samples4
Application Samples
  • Descriptive equivalent
    • “occupancy…by various containers, i.e. 20’ or 40’, dry, reefer, IMO, oversized, empty.
    • = ocupación…por varios tipos de contenedores (es decir, de 20 ó 40 pies, secos, refrigerados, IMO, sobrepasados de tamaño, vacíos).
  • Functional and descriptive equivalent, transference
    • “All areas have several berths at disposal for ocean-going car-carriers and are connected to the rail-network of the German railway company “Deutsche Bundesbahn” and by motorway to all important industrial areas in Europe.
    • = Todas las áreas tienen varios atracaderos a disposición, para transportistas marítimos, y están conectadas a la red ferroviaria de la compañía alemana de ferrocarriles “Deutsche Bundesbahn” (Ferrocarriles federales de Alemania) y, por otros medios motorizados de transporte, a todas las áreas industriales importantes de Europa.
  • Shift or transposition
    • “We divide global logistics on one hand into global sourcing…” (Gerund)
    • = Hemos dividido la logística global en abastecimiento global
application samples5
Application Samples
  • Shift or transposition
    • “ reduced redundancy of vehicle data.” (Currency)
    • = - Reducción de larepetición de los datos de los vehículos.
    • “One of the results is that cooperation demands for direct links between resource management systems, i.e. one planner can see the impacts of the planning of the other on his own situation immediately and can interactively discuss some rearrangements which would lead to a better solution…” (Verb)
    • = Uno de los resultados es que la cooperación precisa de vínculos directos entre los sistemas de administración de recursos. Es decir, un planificador de inmediato puede ver los impactos de la planificación de los otros sobre su propia situación, y puede discutir interactivamente sobre algunos reacomodos, queconducirán hacia mejores soluciones.
    • “…all imported cars have a barcode label…” (Singular)
    • =...todo auto importado tiene una etiqueta con un código de barras…
    • “Resources for the terminal operator are all types of equipment as…” (Article)
    • = Los recursos, para el operador de la terminal, son todos los tipos de equipo…
application samples6
Application Samples
  • Shift or transposition
    • “The capacity utilisation of all areas…” (Noun + adj. = noun + noun)
    • = La utilización de la capacidad de todas las áreas…
    • “Interdependencies of layout and equipment” (Preposition)
    • = Interdependencias entre el esquema y el equipo
  • Modulation
    • “For each appliance the fixed and variable costs are shown…” (Passiveandinversion)
    • = Por cada recurso se muestran los costos fijos y variables…
    • “In this way the handling cost on the marine side, the rail side and the road side can be shown.” (Passive, inversion and amplification)
    • De este modo se muestran los costos por manipulación del lado acuático, del lado del ferrocarril y del lado de las otras vías terrestres.
    • “For the visualisation of the sequence of movements, animation software has been developed which can be disposed by user at any time.” (Translation, inversion and verb)
    • = Se ha desarrollado un programa electrónico animado para la visualización de la secuencia de movimientos, del cual el usuario puede disponeren cualquier momento.
application samples7
Application Samples
  • The negated contrary
    • “…the unpacking of the containers is not without some problems.
    • =…el desempaque de los contenedores se da con algunos problemas.
  • Recognized translation
    • “OAS – Organization of American States”
    • = OEA – Organización de los Estados Americanos
  • Synonymy
    • “material bottlenecks” = Embotellamiento de materiales.
    • “production standstill” = paro en la producción.
  • Reduction
    • “There are existing certain global strategies…” = Existen ciertas estrategias globales…
    • “…there are only limited places for dangerous goods or refrigerated containers…”
    • =…hay carencia de espacios para contenedores refrigerados o con mercancías peligrosas…
    • “The shipping company can inform the port (the port authority as well as the port operator) about the scheduling of the vessel as early as possible to enable the port authority and the port operator to reserve the berth and to plan the operation.”
    • Las compañías navieras pueden informar tanto a la autoridad portuariacomoal operador del puerto los horarios de las naves tan pronto como sea posible, para permitir que los mismosreserven los atracaderos y planifiquen la operación.
application samples8
Application Samples
  • Amplification
    • “- reduction of port-time” = - reducción del tiempo de estadía en el puerto
    • “- utilization of stacks” = - utilización de las pilas de contenedores
  • Paraphrase
    • “For the terminal operator these orders are storage, loading/discharging or packing orders, for the truck operator transport orders from a depot or port to a customer or vice versa”.
    • = Para el operador de la terminal, estas órdenes son el almacenaje, órdenes de carga/descarga o embalaje. Para el operador de camiones, se trata de órdenes de transporte desde un depósito de puerto hacia un cliente o viceversa.
    • “The plan contains information how (at which time, with which duration, planning status) the orders are assigned to the resources”.
    • = El plan contiene información como la hora, la duración y la condición de la planificación con que se asignan las órdenes a los recursos.
    • “All these points will enable the port to close the gap between producer and dealer and to make the port a turntable in international business”.
    • = Todos estos puntos permitirán que los puertos cierren la brecha entre el productor y el comerciante, y se conviertan en centros multidireccionales para el comercio internacional.
Other aspects when translating a document
    • Multiple meaning of words
    • Frequency matching
    • Matching of affective connotations
    • Dialectal variations
    • Ultra high frequency verbs
    • Improper use of articles
    • False cognates
application samples9
Application Samples
  • Multiple meaning of words
    • “…an online connection enables the car producer to be up to date.”
    • = una conexión en línea permite la actualización del productor de autos.
  • False cognates
    • “actual status” = estatus real
    • “stochastic values” = valores estocásticos
  • Dialectal variations
    • “multi-storey garages” = garajes multiniveles
  • High frequency verbs, gerund and modulation
    • “After analysing the actual procedures one basic problem arises:…”
    • = Luego del análisis de los procedimientos reales aparece un problema fundamental:…
  • Translation problems
    • “But the logistic systems and the growth of thinking in a more global way than in local pieces as before the requirements for solutions to overcome the isolated solutions and optima are rising.”
Necessities and Requirements
    • Books
    • Dictionaries
    • Maps
    • Websites
    • Interviews
Translating a document


The road

Social aspects

The context

The components

The previous translations

What is the text all about

Objectives and utilization

The project



Points to be reached

The necessities of the society

Methods and procedures

Self confidence



Educational background




Enjoyment of work

  • ORPE documental center (the agreement)
  • Other necessities of the Panamanian society
  • The final project structure