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STATUS OF POLLINATOR STUDIES IN KENYA PowerPoint Presentation
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STATUS OF POLLINATOR STUDIES IN KENYA

STATUS OF POLLINATOR STUDIES IN KENYA

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STATUS OF POLLINATOR STUDIES IN KENYA

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  1. STATUS OF POLLINATOR STUDIES IN KENYA Mary Gikungu

  2. Background information • Pollinator studies in Kenya are at their infancy • Only a few studies have been published (e.g. Bogdan 1962, Onim, 1979, Morimoto et al, 2004, Njoroge et al, 2004, Gikungu 2002,Gikungu, 2007). • The first pollinator study in Kenya was conducted by Bogdan (1962) on grass pollination but this was followed by a lag phase in pollinator research (Fig. 1). • The current pollinator studies in Kenya endeavor to adhere to the key priority topics as identified by Food and Agriculture Organization of the United Nations (FAO) and International Pollinators Initiative (IPI). These include, • Monitor pollinator decline, its causes and its impact on pollination services • Address the lack of taxonomic information and expertise on pollinators • Assess the economic value of pollination and the economic impact of the decline of pollination services. • Promote the conservation and the restoration and sustainable use of pollinator diversity in agriculture and related ecosystems.

  3. 30 25 20 Number of studies 15 10 5 0 1960 1970 1980 1990 2000 Trends in pollinator studies in Kenya Fig. 1. Trends in pollinator studies in Kenya

  4. 9 9 8 8 7 7 6 6 Completed Completed Ongoing Ongoing 5 5 Number of studies Number of studies 4 4 3 3 2 2 1 1 0 0 Western Western Eastern Eastern Central Central Coast Coast Rift Valley Rift Valley Nyanza Nyanza North Eastern North Eastern • Only a few studies have been conducted in 6 provinces out of 8.

  5. No. of studies in different provinces 9 9 9 9 9 9 8 8 8 8 8 8 7 7 7 7 7 7 6 6 6 6 6 6 Completed Completed Completed Completed Completed Completed Ongoing Ongoing Ongoing Ongoing Ongoing Ongoing 5 5 5 5 5 5 Number of studies Number of studies Number of studies Number of studies Number of studies Number of studies 4 4 4 4 4 4 3 3 3 3 3 3 2 2 2 2 2 2 1 1 1 1 1 1 0 0 0 0 0 0 Western Western Western Western Western Western Eastern Eastern Eastern Eastern Eastern Eastern Central Central Central Central Central Central Coast Coast Coast Coast Coast Coast Rift Valley Rift Valley Rift Valley Rift Valley Rift Valley Rift Valley Nyanza Nyanza Nyanza Nyanza Nyanza Nyanza North Eastern North Eastern North Eastern North Eastern North Eastern North Eastern

  6. Threats • Deforestation • Habitat fragmentation • Fires-slash and burn agriculture • Use of agrochemicals • Charcoal production • Pests and diseases • Poor honey harvesting methods • Climate change

  7. Why bees?? • Pollinate 75 % of world’s flowering plants • Facilitate regeneration of vegetation cover • Indicators of habitat quality • Income generation-beekeeping & pollination service, BUT • Decline observed • Scarcity of data

  8. 14 14 14 12 12 12 10 10 10 Number of studies 8 8 8 Number of studies Number of studies 6 6 6 4 4 4 2 2 2 0 0 0 Community Crop Economic Breeding Individual plant Crop Crop Community Community Individual plant Individual plant Breeding Breeding Economic Economic Types of studies Nb. Annual net economic benefit derived from bee pollination (on eight different crops) in the Kakamega region is approximately to 3.19 M US$.

  9. Identification of pollinator species • Has been a great challenge • Reliance on Keys from South Africa and other counties • Insufficient taxonomic expertise • Small collections with insufficient observation data • Huge gaps in pollination ecology at all levels

  10. Digitization of collection and observation data • The National Museums has been digitizing all the in invertebrate collections • This work has been supported by the federal government of Germany through BIOTA East (Biodiversity Monitoring Transect Analysis in Africa Project) • A database on plant/pollinator interactions is underway

  11. Promotion of Pollinator conservation in Kenya • Capacity building (two taxonomic and pollination ecology courses held through BIOTA, EAFRINET, SAFRINET and York University), next one in August at NMK for one month • Pollination ecology and Bee taxonomy centre at NMK • Community parataxonomist courses • Promotion of Meliponiculture and Apiculture • Establishment of pollinator gardens • Increased collaborations • GEF pollinator project • Mainstreaming of pollinator conservation

  12. Working with the community on Meliponiculture

  13. Meliponiculture in homes

  14. Establishment of Pollination and Bee Taxonomy centre at NMK

  15. Challenges • Ignorance on pollinator input in crop production by agricultural sector and environmental conservation programs. • Biology and ecological knowledge of pollinators • missing • Lack of standard sampling protocols in study design, sampling procedures, data analysis and reporting • Taxonomic impediment • Lack of local keys or guides • No comprehensive data on pollinator diversity • Lack of pollinator conservation policies • UNKNOWN estimates of pollinator decline

  16. Way forward • Need for increased pollinator studies at landscape level, pollinator management and restoration in every part of the country. • Increased understanding of pollinator networks in different eco/regions • Increased research collaborations • Need for local guides, taxonomic keys, websites etc • Pollinator conservation policies

  17. Acknowledgements • Terry Griswold • Connal Eardley • Simon Potts • Laurence Parker • National Museums of Kenya • Kenyan Wildlife Service • Bonn University • Bielefeld University • German Government-BIOTA-East Project