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Sir Isaac Newton and Forces. Physicists 1643-1727. The Telescope.

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Sir isaac newton and forces

Sir Isaac Newtonand Forces



The telescope
The Telescope

  • Newton’s first major achievement was the invention, design, and making of a reflecting telescope. It was an advancement in telescope technology because the mirror gave a better image than a larger lens. It focuses different colors at different distances.

1 st law of motion
1st Law of Motion

With no outside force the ball will never move

  • Newton’s first law of motion: Every object in the same motion tend to stay in that state of motion unless an external force is applied to it.

2 nd law of motion
2nd Law of Motion

The relationship between an object's mass, its acceleration , and the applied force F is F = ma.

When the net force acting on an object is zero then it will accelerate with the

applied force

More force more acceleration

3 rd law of motion
3rd Law of Motion

  • For every action there is an equal and opposite reaction

Reaction force of the book to the apple

Force of attraction between the apple and the earth

Gravity acceleration

  • The acceleration depends upon the mass of the earth and the distance the other mass is from the center of the earth.


  • In 1664 Newton read work on optics by Robert Boyle and Hooke.

  • He himself discovered white light to be a mixture of different color rays.

  • He concluded that light was made up of streams of minute particles

  • A prism transforms white light into many colors

Newton s law of cooling
Newton’s Law of Cooling

  • The rate of heat lost of a body is proportional to the differences in temperatures between the body and its surroundings

Ex. Heat a thermometer and record the rate the temperature drops


  • Calculus discovered by Isaac Newton and Wilhelm Leibniz

  • Newton’s ideas based more on limits and reality while Leibniz focused on infinite and the abstract

  • There are debates over who discovered it first

  • Newton’s work was published 1687

  • Calculus is a branch of math focusing on limits, functions and integrals.

  • Differential calculus and integral calculus


  • A force is something that causes an object to accelerate

  • Net force is the sum of all forces acting on an object.

  • The normal force acts on an object that touches surface

    • Ex. Normal force affects a ball on a table but not a ball in the air

    • Fn=-mg

  • Contact Forces- contact between objects

  • Field Forces- no physical contact

  • Force is a Vector

  • Friction

    • Friction is the force that acts between two objects because of action-reaction

    • Static Friction- force of friction between objects when there is no motion

    • Kinetic- force of friction between objects when there is motion