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Effective Training: Strategies, Systems and Practices, 2 nd Edition PowerPoint Presentation
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Effective Training: Strategies, Systems and Practices, 2 nd Edition

Effective Training: Strategies, Systems and Practices, 2 nd Edition

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Effective Training: Strategies, Systems and Practices, 2 nd Edition

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  1. Effective Training: Strategies, Systems and Practices, 2nd Edition Chapter Four Needs Analysis

  2. Session Overview • Describe the purpose of a needs analysis • Explain the difference between proactive and reactive needs analysis • Describe the framework for conducting a needs analysis Chapter 4

  3. Training Needs Analysis Training Needs Analysis (TNA): • “A systematic method for determining what caused performance to be less than expected or required” p.115 Chapter 4

  4. Output Process Input Organizational Analysis Objectives Resources Environment Training Needs Operational Identify Performance Discrepancy (PD) PD = EP < AP And Causes of PD Analysis Expected Performance (EP) Non Person Analysis Training Actual Needs Performance (AP) TRIGGER Actual Organizational Performance (AOP) < Expected Organizational Performance (EOP) Analysis Phase Chapter 4

  5. Training Needs Analysis Training needs analysis (TNA): • is conducted when a triggering event occurs • determines the benchmark for evaluation of training. • provides an essential component in the implementation of the strategic plan Chapter 4

  6. Approaches to TNA Two Approaches to Analysis: • Proactive TNA – focuses on anticipated performance problem • Reactive TNA – focuses on a perceived performance problem (discrepancy) Chapter 4

  7. Performance Discrepancy YES Is it worth fixing? YES Reward/ Punishment Incongruence KSA Deficiency Inadequate Obstacles in Feedback the System YES YES YES YES Provide Proper Feedback Remove Obstacles Choose Appropriate Remedy Change Contingencies Model of Process When Performance Discrepancy Is Identified – (1 of 2) Chapter 4

  8. Choose Change Provide Remove Appropriate Contingencies Proper Obstacles Remedy Feedback Job Aid Training Practice Change the Job Transfer or Terminate Model of Process When Performance Discrepancy Is Identified – (2 of 2) Performance discrepancy is worth fixing AND is due to a KSA deficiency Chapter 4

  9. Data Sources for Locating Performance Discrepancies (1 of 3) Chapter 4

  10. Data Sources for Locating Performance Discrepancies (2 of 3) Chapter 4

  11. Data Sources for Locating Performance Discrepancies (3 of 3) Chapter 4

  12. Framework for Conducting a TNA • Organizational Analysis • Examining the internal environment of the organization and determining its fit with organizational goals and objectives • Job Analysis (Task Analysis) • Examine jobs to determine the required KSAs necessary to get the job done • Person Analysis • Examine employees to see whether they possess the required KSAs necessary to do the job. Chapter 4

  13. Organizational Analysis An organizational analysis should collect data about: • The mission and strategies of an organization • The resources and allocation of the resources, given the objectives • The factors in the internal environment that may be causing the problem Chapter 4

  14. Organizational Analysis: What Do You Ask and Of Who (1 of 3) What to Ask About Who to Ask Mission Goals and Objectives What are the goals and objectives of the organization How much money has been allocated to any new initiatives Is there general understanding of these objectives Top management Relevant department managers, supervisors and incumbents Social Influences What is the general feeling in the organization regarding meeting goals and objectives What is the social pressure in your department regarding these goals and objectives productivity Top management Relevant department managers, supervisors and incumbents Chapter 4

  15. Organizational Analysis: What Do You Ask and Of Who (2 of 3) What to Ask About Who to Ask Reward Systems What are the rewards and how are they distributed? Are there incentives, are they tied to the goals and objectives? What specifically do high performers get as rewards? Top management Relevant department managers, supervisors and incumbents Job Design How are the jobs organized? Where does their work/material/ information come from, where does it go when done? Does the design of the job inhibit workers from being high performers? Relevant supervisors and incumbents, perhaps relevant department managers Chapter 4

  16. Organizational Analysis: What Do You Ask and Of Who (3 of 3) What to Ask About Who to Ask Job Performance How do employees know what level of performance is acceptable? How do they find out if their level of performance is acceptable? Is there a formal feedback process? Are there opportunities for help if required? Relevant supervisors and incumbents Methods and Practices What are the policies/ procedures/rules in the organization. Which if any inhibit performance Relevant department managers supervisors and incumbents Chapter 4

  17. Job Analysis An operational analysis should collect data to: • Determine what KSAs are required by employees in order to meet the expected performance • Determine the characteristics of the task environment (workflow, equipment, ergonomic concerns, etc…) Chapter 4

  18. Job Analysis Two approaches to Job Analysis: • Worker-Oriented Approach • Focuses on the KSAs that are required on the job • Task-Oriented Approach • Focuses on the work activities (tasks) required to perform the job Chapter 4

  19. Job Analysis: A Comparison of the Worker- and Task-Oriented Approaches Job Task-Oriented Worker-Oriented Approach Approach ______________________________________________________________ Garage attendant Checks tire Pressure Obtains information from visual displays Machinist Checks thickness of Use of a measuring crankshaft device Dentist Drills out decay from Use of precision teeth instruments Forklift Driver Loads pallets of High level of eye-hand washers onto trucks coordination Chapter 4

  20. Job Analysis: Data Sources(1 of 3) Chapter 4

  21. Job Analysis: Data Sources(2 of 3) Chapter 4

  22. Job Analysis: Data Sources(3 of 3) Chapter 4

  23. Personal Analysis Person Analysis • Examine employees to see whether they possess the required KSAs necessary to do the job. Expected Performance – Actual Performance = Performance Discrepancy Chapter 4

  24. Person Analysis: Data Sources(1 of 5) Chapter 4

  25. Person Analysis: Data Sources(2 of 5) Chapter 4

  26. Person Analysis: Data Sources(3 of 5) Chapter 4

  27. Person Analysis: Data Sources(4 of 5) Chapter 4

  28. Person Analysis: Data Sources(5 of 5) Chapter 4