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Development of High (+)-Gossypol Stocks and Genetic Control of the Character. Alois A. Bell, Robert D. Stipanovic, and Lorraine S. Puckhaber USDA-ARS-SPARC College Station, TX. O. O. O. C. H. O. H. C. H. O. H. O. H. H. C. H. O. O. H. H. O. H. O. O. H.

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Development of high gossypol stocks and genetic control of the character

Development of High (+)-Gossypol Stocks and Genetic Control of the Character

Alois A. Bell, Robert D. Stipanovic, and Lorraine S. Puckhaber

USDA-ARS-SPARC

College Station, TX


Gossypol structure and synthesis

O

O

O

C

H

O

H

C

H

O

H

O

H

H

C

H

O

O

H

H

O

H

O

O

H

Gossypol Structure and Synthesis

H

O

Hemigossypol

Gossypol


The r enantiomer of gossypol gossypol form
The (R)-Enantiomer of Gossypol[(+)-Gossypol Form]


The r enantiomer of gossypol gossypol form1
The (R)-Enantiomer of Gossypol[(+)-Gossypol Form]

rotation around bond

due to steric hindrance


Effects of gossypol in poultry diet
Effects of Gossypol in Poultry Diet *

Mean Cumulative Weight Gain (MCWG; gm) and

Cumulative Feed Conversion Ratios (CFCR) of 3-Wk-Old Broilers Fed Crushed Cottonseed (CCS)

*From Bailey, C.A. et. al. J. Ag. Food Chem. 2000, 48, 5692-5695.

† Means with no common letter within a column differ significantly (p ≤ 0.05).


Percentages of the total gossypol that occurred as the enantiomer in seed and flower petals

Selected Parents and Gossypol Contents

Percentages of the Total Gossypol that Occurred as the (+)-Enantiomer in Seed and Flower Petals

* Twenty seeds from a composite sample of several plants were ground

together for seed determinations.

†Determined for 1-6 separate flowers from single plants of each line.


Distribution of gossypol in bc 1

D

r = 0.6214

r2 = 0.3861

C

B

A

Distribution of (+)-Gossypol in BC1

(+)-Gossypol Percentages in Petals and Seed of

(TX-2428 x Tamcot CAMD-E) x Tamcot CAMD-E Backcross Progeny


Distribution of gossypol in bc 11

r = 0.4005

r2 = 0.1604

D

C

B

A

Distribution of (+)-Gossypol in BC1

(+)-Gossypol Percentages in Petals and Seed of

(TX-2443 x Tamcot CAMD-E) x Tamcot CAMD-E Backcross Progeny


Distribution of gossypol in bc 12

r = 0.81

r2 = 0.66

D

C

B

A

Distribution of (+)-Gossypol in BC1

(+)-Gossypol Percentages in Petals and Seed of

(TX-2457 x Tamcot CAMD-E) x Tamcot CAMD-E Backcross Progeny


Distribution of gossypol in bc 13

r = 0.81

r2 = 0.66

D

C

B

A

Distribution of (+)-Gossypol in BC1

(+)-Gossypol Percentages in Petals and Seed of

(TX-2457 x Tamcot CAMD-E) x Tamcot CAMD-E Backcross Progeny

G+1G+2

G+2

G+1


Development of high gossypol stocks and genetic control of the character

30

C

68

B

76

D

80

A

63

25

20

Frequency

15

10

5

0

81-82

83-84

61-62

63-64

65-66

67-68

69-70

71-72

73-74

75-76

77-78

57-58

59-60

79-80

% (+)-Gossypol

Frequency Distribution of (+)-Gossypol Percentages in Seed of BC1 Progeny and Median Values for Clusters A - D


Development of high gossypol stocks and genetic control of the character

30

A

64

B

70

C

79

D

86

25

20

Frequency

15

10

5

0

< 60

88-89

90-91

86-87

66-67

68-69

70-71

72-73

74-75

76-77

78-79

80-81

82-83

84-85

60-61

62-63

64-65

% (+)-Gossypol

Frequency Distribution of (+)-Gossypol Percentages in Petals of BC1 Progeny and Median Values for Clusters A - D


Segregation of gossypol in petals bc 2 progeny suregrow 747
Segregation of (+)-Gossypol in PetalsBC2 Progeny (Suregrow 747)


Segregation of gossypol in petals bc 2 progeny stoneville 457
Segregation of (+)-Gossypol in PetalsBC2 Progeny (Stoneville 457)


Expression of g 1 gene alone in petals s 1 bc 3 progeny of 45 2 4

100

90

80

% (+)-Gossypol

70

60

50

1

2

3

4

5

6

7

8

9

Plant Number

Expression of G+1 Gene Alone in Petals(S1BC3 Progeny of 45-2-4)


Expression of g 2 gene alone in petals s 1 bc 3 progeny of 62 8 7

100

90

80

% (+)-Gossypol

70

60

50

1

2

3

4

5

6

7

8

9

10

Plant Number

Expression of G+2 Gene Alone in Petals(S1BC3 Progeny of 62-8-7)


Expression of g 1 or g 2 alone in petals and seed
Expression of G+1 or G+2Alone in Petals and Seed


Development of high gossypol stocks and genetic control of the character

100

90

80

% (+)-Gossypol

Seed

70

Petals

60

50

1

2

3

4

5

6

7

8

9

10

11

12

13

14

15

Plant Number

Expression of Combinations of G+1 and G+2 in Petals/Seed of Segregating Progeny(S1BC3 Progenyof47-8-1)


Percentages of gossypol over generations during the development of germplasm with both g 1 and g 2
Percentages of (+)-Gossypol Over Generations During the Development of Germplasm with Both G+1 and G+2



Conclusion

Combinations of G+1 and G+2 can be obtained in selfed progeny by combinations of petal and seed analyses.

High (+)-gossypol lines that are homozygous and produce 93-95% (+)-gossypol in seed have been developed.

The G+1 gene alone can increase the (+)-gossypol percentage to at least 90% in seed and is being evaluated as a single gene source of high (+)-gossypol.

Conclusion