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Climate change and coastal zone

Climate change and coastal zone

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Climate change and coastal zone

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  1. Climate change and coastal zone Lesson 5 Venice 19/05/2009

  2. Integrated Coastal Zone Management: Methods Techniques Outline

  3. Integration, Inter-disciplinary, integrated • Define these words • Why do you think they are so important in the debate on natural resource management, and SD? • Do you think that these concepts are effectively present in research and education systems?

  4. EU DG Environment ICZM programs are “dynamic, continuous and iterative processes designed to promote sustainable management of coastal zones” Fisheries and Oceans, Canada ICZM is a continuous planning process in which interested parties, stakeholders and regulators reach general agreement in the best mix of conservation, sustainable resource use and economic development for coastal areas” Integrated Coastal Zone Management (1)

  5. Chapter 17 of Agenda 21: Coastal States commit themselves to integrated management and sustainable development of coastal areas and the marine environment under their national jurisdiction. Integrated Coastal Zone Management (2)

  6. Communication from the Commission to the Council and the European Parliament (2000, for the preparation of a Recommendation adopted on 30 May 2002) “ICZM is a process that implies a new style of governance, a style that involves and is in partnership with all of the segments of civil society. ICZM solicits the collaboration of all coastal zone stakeholders in the conception and implementation of a development model that is in their mutual interest” Integrated Coastal Zone Management (3)

  7. Integration in ICZM • Literature (e.g. Vallega, 1999; Gupta & Fletcher, 2001; Vitkienò & Tamosaitis, 2002; Huda, 2004) contains emerging models for obtaining integration • All of them through iterative process of regulation and policy development, institutional coordination, and education

  8. Two main characteristics • Balancing development and conservation within multi-sectorial planning • Participation and conflict mediation • The bulk of the literature is focused on: “…sustained effort yo reform the objectives, structure and processes of governance that control how coastal resources are allocated” (Olsen, 2003)

  9. A strategic approach to coastal zone management and planning. Aim: achieve sustainable development. Based on common principles, reflecting good territorial governance. Set in motion a process: - Development of National ICZM strategies, following a stock-take - Reports to the Commission: February 2006 - Evaluation and Commission report to Council and European Parliament June 2007 The EU ICZM Recommendation (2002/413/EC)

  10. Protocol on ICZM: “Integrated coastal zone management” means a dynamic process for the sustainable management and use of coastal zones, taking into account at the same time the fragility of coastal ecosystems and landscapes, the diversity of activities and uses, their interactions, the maritime orientation of certain activities and uses and their impact on both the marine and land parts Integrated Coastal Zone Management (3)

  11. renewed focus on integration … • EU Maritime Policy « Blue Paper » • October 2007 • Same approach as underlying EU ICZM Recommendation : • holistic approach to policy making and implementation • good governance • knowledge based approach • integration across land-sea boundary ( “Coasts” are integral part of Maritime Policy)

  12. Maritime Policy – Action Plan • Guidance for national maritime policies • Collective learning • Stakeholder consultation structures andnetworking • Research strategy • Data and information (EMODNET, Atlas of the seas ...)

  13. EU Priorities for ICZM(1) • Adaptation to coastal risks & impacts of climate change Keys: preventive, long-term, multi-risk / cross-sector approach; integration between prevention and response • White paper on Adaptation to Climate Change (3Q 2008) • Community Disaster Prevention Strategy (end 2008) • Study on adaptation and coastal defence costs • Coastal erosion : CONSCIENCE

  14. EU Priorities for ICZM (2) Cooperation in regional seas context, including marine spatial planning - Building on Marine Strategy Directive, ICZM Recommendation and existing regional seas structures - Roadmap and preparatory study, exchange of best-practice • Cohesion policy: trans-national cooperation programmes “Territorial Cohesion” • Helcom (Baltic), OSPAR (Atlantic) • Black Sea Synergy / Bucharest convention (Black Sea) • UNCLOS

  15. ICZM is a policy cycle: ICZM in practice: Generalised steps of ICZM (from Olsen et al., 1998)

  16. PROCESS OF ICZM START OF THE PROCESS ANALYSIS & FORECAST PREPARATION PHASE DEFINITION OFOBJECTIVES PREPARATION OF THE PLAN IMPLEMENTATION MONITORING & EVALUATIOn

  17. Institutional and governance issues International, national, and local levels Sectorial agencies Coastal users Epistemological issues Natural sciences Social sciences Two issues:

  18. T. Stojanovic et al. 2004

  19. “GOVERNANCE is the complex mechanisms, processes and institutions through which citizens and groups articulate their interests, exercise their legal rights and obligations, and mediate their differences." (UNDP) Governance

  20. Governance for the EU “The rules, processes and behaviour that affect the way in which powers are excercised at European level, particularly as regards openness, participation, accountability, effectiveness, and coherence” (White Paper on Good Governance, 2001)

  21. Governance is not government • It is about how government, institutions, markets, and sociale organisations interact with citizens when making decisions • It is the process of decision-making that determines how decisions are taken and who has the power, and in which capacity, to make decisions

  22. Emphasis on governance in NRM • Increased perception that society is not controlled by government alone, but by a process if interaction between many different actors and processes • It acknowledges that problems that society has to deal with take place on multiple and interacting scales (multi-level governance)

  23. “Aarhus Convention” • Paragraph 4, Article 6: “Each party shall provide for early public participation, when all options are open and effective public participation can take place” • Paragraph 8, Article 6: “Each party shall ensure that in the decisions due account is taken of the outcome of the public participation”

  24. The fragment nature of institutional frameworks and the challenges of adopting stakeholder-based decision making, mean that participation strategies are central to ICZM

  25. COASTAL AREA MANAGEMENT PROGRAMME (CAMP)

  26. TOURISM

  27. MARITIME TRAFFIC

  28. INFRASTRUCTURE

  29. MODIFICATION OF THE COASTAL AREA

  30. INTELLIGENCE PHASE SOCIO-ECOLOGICAL SYSTEM Stakeholders Decision-makers Policy-makers Ecosystem Structure & Processes Values Views Coastal zone planning Ecosystem Goods & Services Public participation Operational objectives Coastal zone management DESIGN PHASE Planning and management alternatives DECISION PHASE Through selected indicators Evaluation Scenarios Ongoing Adaptive Management Governance Monitoring Management

  31. cm Floating bay Scenario 1

  32. Cooperating bay Scenario 2

  33. Going back to the future Scenario 3

  34. PARTICIPATORY ICZM STRATEGY DEVELOPMENT IN LEBANON STAKEHOLDER & INSTITUTIONAL ANALYSIS ENV & ECONOMICAL ANALYSIS SH’s VIEWS ELICITATION SCENARIO SWOT ANALYSIS STRATEGY ENDORSEMENT STRATEGY DEVELOPMENT PRIORITISATION