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Introduction to New Media Interaction. Spaces of Interaction. Minority Report. Intelligent billboards. Consider the implications of a paradigm shift in media communications. Considers five key elements of this paradigm Historical view of interactivity Modelling interactivity

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Minority Report

Intelligent billboards

aims of this lecture
Consider the implications of a paradigm shift in media communications

Considers five key elements of this paradigm

Historical view of interactivity

Modelling interactivity

Interactivity from a design perspective

User interaction (UCD & UXD)

Ubiquitous interaction

Aims of this lecture

A paradigm shift

Thomas Kuhn’s (1970)

Structure of Science

normal science


new science



A paradigm shift

Structure of Media?

Analogue media

Digital media

  • Crisis
  • Information revolution
  • Digitization of print in 1980s
  • Impact of Internet on ad revenue for newspapers and TV in 2008

New media

Digitalization and convergence of media

paradigm shift
Paradigm Shift

Douglas Engelbart’s 1968 demonstration at Augmentation Research Centre in San Francisco

Before Engelbart, human interaction with a computer was ‘laughable’

Link to videos of 1968 demonstration

and interview with Engelbart

user tools and collective intelligence
Douglas Engelbart 1968 Augmentation Research

Computers used to augment ‘collective IQ’

Demonstrates user tools

the mouse



dynamic file linking

hierarchical structuring of text


User tools and collective intelligence

The augmentation of the human intellect via interaction understood as a collective bootstrapping process

  • Engelbart would go on to hook up the second node of ARPANet in the following year and, during the next decade, would help to build an online community on that network, which has now become the Internet

(See the MIT New Media Reader, 2003).

what makes the global village is not the content or the message of the medium but the medium itself
‘The medium shapes and controls the scale and form of human association and actions’

(McLuhan 1964 p. 9)

What makes the Global Village is not the content or the message of the medium, but the medium itself

Not necessarily about Harmony. Not just about glorious technological change. Big social and political changes to the way we live, work and play

Wapping video

what is new about new media
What is new about ‘new’ media?
  • Differences between old media and new are greater userchoice and control

Pavlik, 1998 New Media Technology: Cultural and Commercial Perspectives

  • 1: mutually or reciprocally active
  • 2: of, relating to, or being a two-way electronic communication system (as a telephone, cable television, or a computer) that involves a user's orders (as for information or merchandise) or responses (as to a poll)

Merriam-Webster Online Dictionary


Interactivity is based on changing roles of sender/receiver

simple model of linear communication
simple model of linear communication




interactive communication
interactive communication






interaction defined
Interaction defined


Communicator A

Communicator B



Communicator A

Bretz (1983) cited in Hanssen, Jankowski and Etienne 1996 Contours of Multimedia

three levels of interaction rafaeli 1988
Three levels of interactionRafaeli (1988)


(navigational, click-thru)


(dynamic database)


(face-to-face, email, artificial intelligence)

  • ELIZA was written at MIT by Joseph Weizenbaum between 1964 to 1966.
  • Richard Wallace began development of Alice in 1995, while at Lehigh University
clever er bots
Clever(er) Bots
  • See
what should interaction designers strive for
Tannenbaum argues that a good mix of


social presence

Like face-to-face, interpersonal communication

What should interaction designers strive for?
should interaction design strive to be interpersonal
Should interaction design strive to be interpersonal?
  • How can designers make new media interpersonal?
  • Immediacy of response
  • Non-sequential access to information
  • Adaptability
  • High levels of feedback
assumptions about face to face communication1
Steve Jones (1999)

CMC has become a race to provide the most ‘lifelike’ interaction possible

problems with face-to-face interaction

It does not necessarily break down barriers of communication….

Assumptions about face-to-face communication
should all new media be interactive
Should all new media be interactive?

‘…from the perspective of functionality, it is not necessary to always strive for a high degree of interactivity’

Hanssen, Jankowski and Etienne, Contours of Multimedia 1996

user research
What do users consider interactivity to be?

Control over sequence

Greater number of choices


Too much control experienced negatively

Decision-making obstacle to use

A degree of linearity aided user orientation

User Research
human computer interaction hci
Human Computer Interaction (HCI)
  • HCI is about the design of computers, but ‘from the user's point of view’
  • In Draper and Norman (eds) "User-Centered System Design" 1986 p. 2
  • HCI uses cognitive psychology frameworks

Donald Norman

three paradigms within hci
Three Paradigms Within HCI

1. Ergonomic

2. Cognitive

cognitive walkthrough
Cognitive Walkthrough
  • Making a Fried Breakfast
  • Write down a step-by-step (walk-through) of what you do to make breakfast
paper prototypes

Paper Prototypes

Videos on paper prototypes

Paper Prototype

Paper Prototype IMP06 HR


See Bill Verplank on YouTube

3 rd paradigm hci
3rd Paradigm HCI
  • From Usability to User Experience (UXD)
  • Use and Social Context
  • Ethnography as design method
  • Emotions, Feelings and Affect
  • Task versus Non-Task
  • Ubicomp/Pervasive Computing

See Greenfield


On Everyware

See Adam Greenfield on Youtube


Challenges for Interaction DesignSee Dan Saffer, Designing for Interaction (2010) Berkeley: New Riders (Greenfield interviewed in chapter nine)

  • “When a room, or a lamppost, or a running shoe is, in and of itself, an information gathering, processing, storage, and transmission device, it's crazy to assume that the keyboard or the traditional GUI makes sense as a channel for interaction “
a multiplicity of interactions
A Multiplicity of Interactions

The Space of Interaction

  • Interaction design will need to consider “multiplicity.”
  • “Instead of the neatly circumscribed space of interaction between a single user and his or her PC, his or her mobile, we're going to have to contend with a situation in which multiple users are potentially interacting with multiple technical systems in a given space at a given moment.”
quality of user experience
Quality of User Experience

The future is interaction based on voice, gestural and pervasive interfaces

  • “Networked information-processing devices are going to be deployed everywhere in the built environment rather strongly implies the inadequacy of the traditional user interface modalities… most particularly keyboards and keypads.”