Content distribution and protocol from hierarchical trees to distributed graphs
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content distribution and “protocol”: from hierarchical trees to distributed graphs. Jason Gaedtke [email protected] November 7, 2007. abstract.

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Content distribution and protocol from hierarchical trees to distributed graphs

content distribution and “protocol”: from hierarchical trees to distributed graphs

Jason Gaedtke

[email protected]

November 7, 2007

abstract trees to distributed graphs

  • codec efficiency advances, recording device and storage commoditization, and broadband access network maturity have enabled an explosion in the consumption of professional and user-generated IP video

  • traditional media distributors and emerging Internet providers are challenged to drive cost from their IP video business models

  • the P2P architectural paradigm and the philosophical and cultural concept of “Protocol” offer a compelling alternative to traditional, hierarchical CDNs

Definition galloway mit press 2004
definition (Galloway, MIT Press 2004) trees to distributed graphs

  • “protocol”

    • a system of distributed management/control strategies

    • facilitates P2P relationships between autonomous entities

    • anti-hierarchical and anti-authority

    • engenders localized decision-making, versus centralized

    • accommodates massive contingency/change

    • represents the outcome (not the antecedent) of distributed behavior

  • analysis occurs at the intersection of philosophy, culture and technology

  • control moves from authorities to protocol standards

Philosophical and political considerations
philosophical and political considerations trees to distributed graphs

  • mesh vs. hierarchy

    • favors horizontal, distributed organization and control

    • e.g. TCP/IP vs. DNS (hindered by points of control/failure)

    • end-to-end principal: state/intelligence at the edges

  • historical movement

    • centralized (server) -> decentralized (cluster) -> distributed (net)

    • low barrier-to-entry empowers participation, breeds innovation

    • a similar decentralized/distributed control model underlies proven and successful open source collaboration

  • this concept, Protocol, is native to the logical design/architecture of the Internet (TCP/IP)

    • infrastructure and associated corporate capital investment notwithstanding (i.e., root of present Net Neutrality debate)

Business and economic considerations
business and economic considerations trees to distributed graphs

  • primary appeal: storage, processing, and bandwidth cost avoidance; >90% savings

    • application infrastructure is self-organizing/healing; minimal admin/ops overhead

  • must consider/provide user value-proposition (beyond “free content”) motivating participation and resource contribution

  • Internet public policy and intellectual property law/enforcement still evolving

  • growing need for security and data integrity assurances

Technical considerations
technical considerations trees to distributed graphs

  • P2P substrates:

    • form a decentralized, self-organizing and fault-tolerant overlay network

    • provide efficient request routing, deterministic object location, and load-balancing in an application-independent manner

    • facilitate application-specific object replication, caching, and fault recovery

    • enable robust and efficient data and service availability, reliability and geographical/route diversity and redundancy

    • offer compelling scaling features and performance typically O(log(N))

    • participatory design, development and control model engenders innovation

applications trees to distributed graphs

  • substantial academic and corporate research over the past five+ years

  • horizontal, mesh networks and P2P applications evolving beyond file-sharing

    • music/movies/tv “sharing”: Napster, Gnutella, KaZaA, eDonkey, FreeNet, BitTorrent

    • voice: Skype, IETF’s P2P SIP

    • video: Azureus, Joost

    • storage: OceanStore, Ivy

    • commercial content distribution: Move, Grid, Pando, Red Swoosh (Akamai), Kontiki (VeriSign)

    • gaming and virtual worlds: Quazal, FT’s Solipsis

    • virtual economies: Scrivener (Rice), Tribler (Harvard)

appendix trees to distributed graphs

Research and references
research and references trees to distributed graphs

  • “Protocol: How Control Exists after Decentralization”

    • Alex Galloway (NYU)

    • MIT Press, 2004

    • Philosophical foundations in Marx, Foucault, Deleuze, Jameson, Hardt

  • academic research

    • Berkeley (OceanStore persistence)

    • Columbia (P2P SIP audio/video communications)

    • MIT (Chord DHT, Ivy file-system)

    • Purdue (Pastry, Dynamic P2P Source Routing)

    • Rice (FreePastry, Squirrel web cache)

    • Washington (Pastry, BitTyrant)

  • corporate R&D

    • France Telecom (Solipsis virtual world, Maay search engine,

    • Microsoft (Herald pub/sub, SimPastry, PAST archive, SplitStream CDN)

  • Distributed Computing Industry Association (DCIA) P4P Working Group

    • Explicit Communications for Cooperative Control Between P2P and Network Providers


  • looking to add CableLabs to this list

Enabling technologies
enabling technologies trees to distributed graphs

  • reliable and efficient storage, search and discovery algorithms

    • DHTs: Chord, CAN, Pastry, Tapestry

  • identity

  • reputation

  • security

  • virtual economy

  • quality of service

  • multicast