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The Earth, the Moon, and the Sun. Physical Science 2011-2012. The Earth in Space Section 7-1. Gravity from the Earth-Moon-Sun system directly affects the conditions for life here on Earth. The Physical Characteristics of the Earth. Diameter (12,714 km/7,926 mi.)

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The Earth, the Moon, and the Sun

Physical Science


the earth in space section 7 1
The Earth in SpaceSection 7-1

Gravity from the Earth-Moon-Sun system directly affects the conditions for life here on Earth.

the physical characteristics of the earth
The Physical Characteristics of the Earth
  • Diameter (12,714 km/7,926 mi.)
  • Circumference (40,075 km/24,901 mi)
  • Mass (5.98 x1024 kg/1,130,000,000,000,000,000,000,000 lbs.)
  • Average distance from the Sun (149,000,000 km/92,384,987 mi.)
  • Average distance from the Moon (384,400 km/238,855 mi.)
the earth s magnetic field
The Earth’s Magnetic Field

The Earth’s magnetic field helps protect the Earth from harmful radiation/energy from the Sun.

the magnetosphere
The Magnetosphere

Areas of charged particles (protons and electrons) that circle the Earth above the atmosphere. The particles are held in place by gravity and are called the “Van Allen belts”.

the aurora
The Aurora

A stream of particles called the “solar wind” flow through space from the Sun toward the Earth and collide with the magnetic field that causes them to flow down toward the north and south poles.

the aurora1
The Aurora

The “solar wind” particles then collide with atoms in the atmosphere at the poles and cause the solar wind particles to give off light.

the earth s orbit around the sun1
The Earth’s Orbit around the Sun
  • Elliptical shaped orbit
the earth and venus
The Earth and Venus
  • Same size
  • Venus has an atmosphere of 96% CO2 creating an average temp of 460 Celsius (860 F)
  • Earth has an atmosphere of 0.04% CO2 creating an average temp of 15 Celsius (60 F).
the earth and mars
The Earth and Mars
  • Earth is twice as large
  • The Earth’s gravity is strong enough to hold our atmosphere in place, Mars cannot hold one sufficient for life as we understand it
  • Average temperature on Mars is -63 Celsius (-85 F)
time and seasons section 7 2
Time and SeasonsSection 7-2

People have used the movements of the Earth, Moon, and Sun to measure time for thousands of years.

time zones
Time Zones
  • The Earth spins one complete turn in 24 hours, so 360 degrees of motion in 24hrs give you 15 degrees of movement an hour.
  • 360/24 = 15
  • This motion creates 24 time zones of 15 degrees of longitude each.

Lines running east to west that when used with lines of latitude help us calculate position on the Earth. GPS

years and days
Years and Days
  • Rotation measures days (1 rotation 24hrs)
  • Revolution measures years (1 revolution 365 days)
the reason for the seasons
The Reason for the Seasons

The Earth is tilted 23.5 degrees

the tilted angle
The Tilted Angle

The 23.5 degree tilt causes the angle that the sun hits the Earth to change throughout the year.

equinox vs solstice
Equinox vs. Solstice
  • Equinox (Spring and Fall, equal day and night hours)
  • Solstice (Summer and Winter, most hours of daylight and least number of hours of daylight)

Rotation and Revolution

The moon revolves once around the Earth every 27 days.


The surface of the Moon is barren rock, this is how the Earth would look with no water or plant life

origin of the moon disproven ideas
Origin of the Moon(Disproven Ideas)
  • The Capture Theory
  • The Binary Accretion Theory
  • The Fission Theory
the capture theory
The Capture Theory

This theory stated that the moon formed somewhere else in the solar system and was pulled in by the gravitational pull of the Earth.

the binary accretion theory
The Binary Accretion Theory

The Moon condensed from the same loose space material as the Earth did.

the fission theory
The Fission Theory

A portion of molten material was ejected from the Earth as it cooled.

origin of the moon modern theory
Origin of the Moon(Modern Theory)

The Giant Impact Theory