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The Sun-Earth-Moon System. Tools of Astronomy The Moon Sun-Earth-Moon System. Chap. 28. Objectives. Tools of Astronomy – 28.1. describe electro-magnetic radiation. explain how telescopes work describe space exploration. http://www.physics.unr.edu/cshirley/images.html.

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the sun earth moon system

The Sun-Earth-Moon System

Tools of Astronomy

The Moon

Sun-Earth-Moon System

Chap. 28

tools of astronomy 28 1
Objectives

Tools of Astronomy – 28.1

  • describe electro-magnetic radiation.
  • explain how telescopes work
  • describe space exploration

http://www.physics.unr.edu/cshirley/images.html

slide4
Electromagnetic Radiation (light)
  • Only part of the spectrum is visible (ROY G BIV)
slide5
Electromagnetic Radiation (light)
  • Only part of the spectrum is visible (ROY G BIV)
  • Most ‘light’ cannot be seen by the human eye
slide6
Electromagnetic Radiation (light)
  • Only part of the spectrum is visible (ROY G BIV)
  • Most ‘light’ cannot be seen by the human eye
  • Different light has different wavelengths
slide7
Electromagnetic Radiation (light)
  • Only part of the spectrum is visible (ROY G BIV)
  • Most ‘light’ cannot be seen by the human eye
  • Different light has different wavelengths
  • Frequency is related to wavelength

The longer the wave the the frequency

slide8
Electromagnetic Radiation (light)
  • Only part of the spectrum is visible (ROY G BIV)
  • Most ‘light’ cannot be seen by the human eye
  • Different light has different wavelengths
  • Frequency is related to wavelength

The longer the wave the shorter the frequency

slide9
Telescopes

Yerkes observatory (WI), 1897

slide10
Telescopes
  • Introduction
slide11
Telescopes
  • Introduction
  • Purpose – to collect light and focus it

Globular Star Cluster M15, Milky Way

slide12
Telescopes
  • Introduction
  • Purpose – to collect light and focus it
  • Telescopes magnify objects

This is the secondary function of a telescope

slide13
Telescopes
  • Introduction
  • Types
slide14
Telescopes
  • Introduction
  • Types
  • Refractor

http://www.yesmag.bc.ca/how_work/telescope.html

slide15
Telescopes
  • Introduction
  • Types
  • Refractor
  • Uses glass lenses
slide16
Telescopes
  • Introduction
  • Types
  • Refractor
  • Uses glass lenses
  • Often made from two lenses – an objective and an eyepiece

http://www.astro-tom.com/telescopes/telescopes.htm

slide17
Telescopes
  • Introduction
  • Types
  • Reflector

http://www.yesmag.bc.ca/how_work/telescope.html

slide18
Telescopes
  • Introduction
  • Types
  • Reflector
  • Uses mirrors
slide19
Telescopes
  • Introduction
  • Types
  • Reflector
  • Uses mirrors
  • Light often strikes a series of mirrors

http://www.astro-tom.com/telescopes/telescopes.htm

slide20
Telescopes
  • Introduction
  • Types
  • Reflector
  • Uses mirrors
  • Light often strikes a series of mirrors

http://www.astro-tom.com/telescopes/telescopes.htm

slide21
Telescopes
  • Introduction
  • Types
  • Benefits
slide22
Telescopes
  • Introduction
  • Types
  • Benefits
  • Can utilize a variety of detectors
slide23
Telescopes
  • Introduction
  • Types
  • Benefits
  • Can utilize a variety of detectors
  • Can focus more light than the eye
slide24
Telescopes
  • Introduction
  • Types
  • Benefits
  • Can utilize a variety of detectors
  • Can focus more light than the eye
  • Can make time exposure photos

http://www.wam.umd.edu/~iblumgar/eclipse.html

slide25
Telescopes
  • Location
slide26
Telescopes
  • Location
  • Away from cities
slide27
Telescopes
  • Location
  • Away from cities
  • On high mountains
slide30
http://www.ucolick.org/~kibrick/

Keck Observatory – Mauna Kea

~14,000 feet

slide31
Telescopes
  • Location
  • Other telescopes
  • Radio-telescopes collect .

http://pics.bothner.com/2002/RadioTelescope/

slide32
Telescopes
  • Location
  • Other telescopes
  • Radio-telescopes collect radiowaves
  • Interferometry links multiple ________
slide33
Telescopes
  • Location
  • Other telescopes
  • Radio-telescopes collect radiowaves
  • Interferometry links multiple telescopes
slide37
Collecting data beyond Earth
  • Space telescopes
  • Spacecraft/probes
slide38
Collecting data beyond Earth
  • Space telescopes
  • Spacecraft/probes
  • Space station
the moon 28 2
Objectives

The Moon – 28.2

  • describe the develop-ment of exploration of the Moon.
  • identify features on the Moon.
  • explain the theories about how the Moon formed.
slide41
Historic Missions
  • Sputnik I (1957)

The first , launched by .

slide42
Historic Missions
  • Sputnik I (1957)

The first satellite, launched by Russia

slide43
Historic Missions
  • Sputnik I (1957)
  • Vostok 1 (1961)

first man in space, he was from .

slide44
Historic Missions
  • Sputnik I (1957)
  • Vostok 1 (1961)

Yuri Gagarin first man in space, he was from Russia.

slide45
Historic Missions
  • Sputnik I (1957)
  • Vostok 1 (1961)
  • Mercury (1961)

was the first American in space.

slide46
Historic Missions
  • Sputnik I (1957)
  • Vostok 1 (1961)
  • Mercury (1961)

Alan Shepard Jr was the first American in space.

slide48
Historic Missions
  • Sputnik I (1957)
  • Vostok 1 (1961)
  • Mercury (1961)
  • Gemini (1963-1966)

This craft was designed to carry people.

slide49
Historic Missions
  • Sputnik I (1957)
  • Vostok 1 (1961)
  • Mercury (1961)
  • Gemini (1963-1966)

This craft was designed to carry 2 people.

slide51
Historic Missions
  • Sputnik I (1957)
  • Vostok 1 (1961)
  • Mercury (1961)
  • Gemini (1963-1966)
  • Apollo 11 (1969)

Landed the first man, , on the moon.

slide52
Historic Missions
  • Sputnik I (1957)
  • Vostok 1 (1961)
  • Mercury (1961)
  • Gemini (1963-1966)
  • Apollo 11 (1969)

Landed the first man, Neil Armstrong, on the moon.

slide55
Lunar Properties
  • Earth’s moon is larger than most

Only Jupiter and Saturn have larger moons.

slide57
Lunar Properties
  • Earth’s moon is larger than most
  • Earth’s moon is farther than most

Most moons are closer to their planets.

slide58
Lunar Properties
  • Earth’s moon is larger than most
  • Earth’s moon is farther than most
  • The moon is solid and rocky

Not icy or gaseous like many other moons.

slide59
Lunar Properties
  • Earth’s moon is larger than most
  • Earth’s moon is farther than most
  • The moon is solid and rocky
  • Earth’s moon is one of the few moons of the inner planets.

Mercury and Venus have none, Mars’ moons are tiny

slide62
The Moon’s Surface
  • Has relatively low albedo (7%)

Albedo describes amount of sunlight reflected.

slide63
The Moon’s Surface
  • Has relatively low albedo (7%)
  • Temperatures fluctuate a lot (from 400K to 100K)

This is due to the moon’s lack of .

slide64
The Moon’s Surface
  • Has relatively low albedo (7%)
  • Temperatures fluctuate a lot (from 400K to 100K)

This is due to the moon’s lack of an atmosphere.

slide65
The Moon’s Surface
  • Has relatively low albedo (7%)
  • Temperatures fluctuate a lot (from 400K to 100K)
  • Highlands

Light in color, mountainous, and cratered.

slide66
The Moon’s Surface
  • Has relatively low albedo (7%)
  • Temperatures fluctuate a lot (from 400K to 100K)
  • Highlands
  • Maria

Dark, smooth plains, associated with rilles (long, narrow straight valley

slide67
The Moon’s Surface
  • Impact craters knock out ejecta.

Material expelled from crater. Long strands of ejecta are called rays.

slide68
The Moon’s Surface
  • Impact craters knock out ejecta.
  • Moons craters are easier to see than Earth’s.

This is because there is more on Earth.

slide69
The Moon’s Surface
  • Impact craters knock out ejecta.
  • Moons craters are easier to see than Earth’s.

This is because there is more weathering on Earth.

slide71
History
  • Believed to be 3.8 – 4.6 byo.

Based on radioisotope dating of rocks.

slide72
History
  • Believed to be 3.8 – 4.6 byo.
  • Bombarded heavily by projectiles for first 800 million years.

Most of the craters have dark ejecta meaning they’re old.

slide73
History
  • Believed to be 3.8 – 4.6 byo.
  • Bombarded heavily by projectiles for first 800 million years.
  • This action produced regolith.

This is the loose, ground up moon rock.

slide74
History
  • Believed to be 3.8 – 4.6 byo.
  • Bombarded heavily by projectiles for first 800 million years.
  • This action produced regolith.
  • Maria formed later from magma.

This explains the darker color.

slide75
History
  • Believed to be 3.8 – 4.6 byo.
  • Bombarded heavily by projectiles for first 800 million years.
  • This action produced regolith.
  • Maria formed later from magma.
  • Flowing lava created rilles.

Not created by flowing water, but flowing lava.

slide77
Formation Theories
  • Capture Theory

Moon formed elsewhere and was captured by Earth’s gravity.

slide78
Formation Theories
  • Capture Theory
  • How did object slow down?
slide79
Formation Theories
  • Capture Theory
  • How did object slow down?
  • What explains similar composition to Earth’s?
slide80
Formation Theories
  • Capture Theory
  • Simultaneous Formation Theory

Moon and Earth formed in space at same time, near each other

slide81
Formation Theories
  • Capture Theory
  • Simultaneous Formation Theory
  • Explains same composition and proximity.
slide82
Formation Theories
  • Capture Theory
  • Simultaneous Formation Theory
  • Explains same composition and proximity.
  • Does not explain Earth’s higher iron content.
slide84
Formation Theories
  • Impact Theory

Earth was hit by Mars-size object, and layers of crust/mantle material were ejected.

slide85
Formation Theories
  • Impact Theory
  • Moon received iron-poor material.
slide86
Formation Theories
  • Impact Theory
  • Moon received iron-poor material.
  • Heat evaporated water from moon.
sun moon earth system 28 3
Objectives

Sun-Moon-Earth System – 28.3

  • Identify the relative positions and motions of Earth, the Sun, and the Moon
  • Describe the phases of the Moon.
  • Explain eclipses of the Sun and Moon.
slide89
Motion

We are moving at a speed of mph around the sun (and rotating about mph).

slide90
Motion

We are moving at a speed of 67,000 mph around the sun (and rotating about 1000 mph).

slide91
Motion
  • Evidence of motion

How do we know there is motion?

slide92
Motion
  • Evidence of motion
  • Apparent motion of sun
slide93
Motion
  • Evidence of motion
  • Apparent motion of sun
  • Apparent motion of moon

http://www.nasa.gov/vision/universe/watchtheskies/20jun_moonillusion.html

slide94
Motion
  • Evidence of motion
  • Apparent motion of sun
  • Apparent motion of moon
  • Apparent motion of stars

http://www.sufism.org/society/articles/sema_camille.html

slide95
Motion
  • Evidence of motion
  • Rate of motion

Each day the sun moves an apparent 360º. This means it appears to move º/minute.

slide96
Motion
  • Evidence of motion
  • Rate of motion

Each day the sun moves an apparent 360º. This means it appears to move 0.25 º/minute.

slide97
Motion
  • Evidence of motion
  • Rate of motion
  • How do we know Earth is moving?

. . .and not the rest of the universe?

slide98
Motion
  • Evidence of motion
  • Rate of motion
  • How do we know Earth is moving?
  • A Foucault pendulum

http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Foucault_pendulum

slide99
Motion
  • Evidence of motion
  • Rate of motion
  • How do we know Earth is moving?
  • A Foucault pendulum
  • Coriolis effect

http://www.atmos.ucla.edu

slide101
Earth’s Tilt
  • Earth moves in a plane called the ecliptic
slide102
Earth’s Tilt
  • Earth moves in a plane called the ecliptic
  • Earth’s axis of rotation is not perpendicular to its ecliptic

It tilts by .

slide103
Earth’s Tilt
  • Earth moves in a plane called the ecliptic
  • Earth’s axis of rotation is not perpendicular to its ecliptic

23.5º

It tilts by 23.5º.

slide104
Earth’s Tilt
  • Earth moves in a plane called the ecliptic
  • Earth’s axis of rotation is not perpendicular to its ecliptic
  • In the Northern hemisphere the Sun’s altitude in the sky is higher in the .
slide106
Earth’s Tilt
  • Earth moves in a plane called the ecliptic
  • Earth’s axis of rotation is not perpendicular to its ecliptic
  • In the Northern hemisphere the Sun’s altitude in the sky is higher in the summer.
slide107
Earth’s Tilt
  • The solstices
slide108
Earth’s Tilt
  • The solstices
  • Summer
slide109
Earth’s Tilt
  • The solstices
  • Summer
  • “Longest day” of the year (in Northern hemisphere)
slide110
Earth’s Tilt
  • The solstices
  • Summer
  • “Longest day” of the year (in Northern hemisphere)
  • Sun is directly overhead at Tropic of Cancer (23.5º N)
slide111
Earth’s Tilt
  • The solstices
  • Summer
  • “Longest day” of the year (in Northern hemisphere)
  • Sun is directly overhead at Tropic of Cancer (23.5º N)
  • Occurs around June 21
slide112
Earth’s Tilt
  • The solstices
  • Summer
  • “Longest day” of the year (in Northern hemisphere)
  • Sun is directly overhead at Tropic of Cancer (23.5º N)
  • Occurs around June 21
  • Sun never sets in Arctic circle
slide114
Earth’s Tilt
  • The solstices
  • Summer
  • Winter
slide115
Earth’s Tilt
  • The solstices
  • Summer
  • Winter
  • Most hours of darkness (in N. hemisphere)
slide116
Earth’s Tilt
  • The solstices
  • Summer
  • Winter
  • Most hours of darkness (in N. hemisphere)
  • Sun is directly overhead at Tropic of Capricorn (23.5º S)
slide117
Earth’s Tilt
  • The solstices
  • Summer
  • Winter
  • Most hours of darkness (in N. hemisphere)
  • Sun is directly overhead at Tropic of Capricorn (23.5º S)
  • Occurs around December 21
slide118
Earth’s Tilt
  • The solstices
  • Summer
  • Winter
  • Most hours of darkness (in N. hemisphere)
  • Sun is directly overhead at Tropic of Capricorn (23.5º S)
  • Occurs around December 21
  • Sun never rises in Arctic circle
slide120
Earth’s Tilt
  • The solstices
  • Summer
  • Winter
  • Equinoxes
slide121
Earth’s Tilt
  • The solstices
  • Summer
  • Winter
  • Equinoxes
  • Occur at midpoint between solstices
slide122
Earth’s Tilt
  • The solstices
  • Summer
  • Winter
  • Equinoxes
  • Occur at midpoint between solstices
  • Sun directly overhead at equator
slide123
Earth’s Tilt
  • The solstices
  • Summer
  • Winter
  • Equinoxes
  • Occur at midpoint between solstices
  • Sun directly overhead at equator
  • Both hemispheres receive equal sunlight
slide124
Self Check
  • At which point is summer solstice?
slide125
Self Check
  • At which point is summer solstice?
  • At which point is the vernal equinox
slide127
Go to diagram
  • Phases of the Moon
  • Names of the Phases
slide128
Go to diagram
  • Phases of the Moon
  • Names of the Phases
  • New moon

The moon is between Earth and the Sun – we don’t see the lit surface

slide129
Go to diagram
  • Phases of the Moon
  • Names of the Phases
  • New moon
  • Waxing crescent

Waxing means increasing

slide130
Go to diagram
  • Phases of the Moon
  • Names of the Phases
  • New moon
  • Waxing crescent
  • First quarter

Observed ¼ of the way through a lunar month

slide131
Go to diagram
  • Phases of the Moon
  • Names of the Phases
  • New moon
  • Waxing crescent
  • First quarter
  • Waxing gibbous

Gibbous means more than ½ but less than full

slide132
Go to diagram
  • Phases of the Moon
  • Names of the Phases
  • Full moon

The moon is on opposite sides of the Earth from the Sun – we see the entire lit surface

slide133
Go to diagram
  • Phases of the Moon
  • Names of the Phases
  • Full moon
  • Waning gibbous

Waning means decreasing in size/intensity

slide134
Go to diagram
  • Phases of the Moon
  • Names of the Phases
  • Full moon
  • Waning gibbous
  • Third quarter

Observed ¾ into the lunar month

slide135
Go to diagram
  • Phases of the Moon
  • Names of the Phases
  • Full moon
  • Waning gibbous
  • Third quarter
  • Waning crescent
slide136
Phases of the Moon
  • Names of the Phases
  • Synchronous Rotation

For each revolution of the moon it makes one rotation.

slide138
Phases of the Moon
  • Timing
  • It takes the moon about 27.3 days to complete its (a lunar month).
slide139
Phases of the Moon
  • Timing
  • It takes the moon about 27.3 days to complete its orbit (a lunar month).
  • During 24 hours the moon moves 1/27.3 of its orbit which = º.
slide140
Phases of the Moon
  • Timing
  • It takes the moon about 27.3 days to complete its orbit (a lunar month).
  • During 24 hours the moon moves 1/27.3 of its orbit which = 13º.
  • This means the Earth must rotate an extra 13º to ‘catch up to the moon’.

Each night the moonrise occurs about minutes later.

slide141
Phases of the Moon
  • Timing
  • It takes the moon about 27.3 days to complete its orbit (a lunar month).
  • During 24 hours the moon moves 1/27.3 of its orbit which = 13º.
  • This means the Earth must rotate an extra 13º to ‘catch up to the moon’.

Each night the moonrise occurs about 50 minutes later.

slide144
Eclipses
  • Solar Eclipse
slide145
Eclipses
  • Solar Eclipse
  • The moon creates a shadow that covers part of the Earth

June 29, 2006 Solar Eclipse

slide146
Eclipses
  • Solar Eclipse
  • The moon creates a shadow that covers part of the Earth
  • The Umbra is the darker, inner part of the shadow.

If the umbra passes over your location you see no sun ( Eclipse)

slide147
Eclipses
  • Solar Eclipse
  • The moon creates a shadow that covers part of the Earth
  • The Umbra is the darker, inner part of the shadow.

If the umbra passes over your location you see no sun (Total Eclipse)

slide148
Eclipses
  • Solar Eclipse
  • The moon creates a shadow that covers part of the Earth
  • The Umbra is the darker, inner part of the shadow.
  • The Penumbra is the lighter, outer shadow.

If the penumbra passes over your location you see some of the sun ( Eclipse)

slide149
Eclipses
  • Solar Eclipse
  • The moon creates a shadow that covers part of the Earth
  • The Umbra is the darker, inner part of the shadow.
  • The Penumbra is the lighter, outer shadow.

If the penumbra passes over your location you see some of the sun (Partial Eclipse)

slide152
Eclipses
  • Solar Eclipse
  • Annular Eclipse

Occurs when the Earth/Moon system are separated by maximum distance.

slide153
Eclipses
  • Solar Eclipse
  • Annular Eclipse
  • Apogee

Furthest distance between Moon and Earth.

slide154
Eclipses
  • Solar Eclipse
  • Annular Eclipse
  • Apogee
  • Perigee

Smallest distance between Moon and Earth.

slide155
Eclipses
  • Lunar Eclipse

Moon is partially blocked by the .

slide156
Eclipses
  • Lunar Eclipse

Moon is partially blocked by the Sun.

slide157
Eclipses
  • Lunar Eclipse
  • These last longer than Solar eclipses because. . .
slide158
Eclipses
  • Lunar Eclipse
  • These last longer than Solar eclipses because. . .
  • Even though moon passes through umbra, it is not completely dark because. . .
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