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The Sun-Earth-Moon System. Tools of Astronomy The Moon Sun-Earth-Moon System. Chap. 28. Objectives. Tools of Astronomy – 28.1. describe electro-magnetic radiation. explain how telescopes work describe space exploration. http://www.physics.unr.edu/cshirley/images.html.

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the sun earth moon system

The Sun-Earth-Moon System

Tools of Astronomy

The Moon

Sun-Earth-Moon System

Chap. 28

tools of astronomy 28 1

Objectives

Tools of Astronomy – 28.1

  • describe electro-magnetic radiation.
  • explain how telescopes work
  • describe space exploration

http://www.physics.unr.edu/cshirley/images.html

slide4

Electromagnetic Radiation (light)

  • Only part of the spectrum is visible (ROY G BIV)
slide5

Electromagnetic Radiation (light)

  • Only part of the spectrum is visible (ROY G BIV)
  • Most ‘light’ cannot be seen by the human eye
slide6

Electromagnetic Radiation (light)

  • Only part of the spectrum is visible (ROY G BIV)
  • Most ‘light’ cannot be seen by the human eye
  • Different light has different wavelengths
slide7

Electromagnetic Radiation (light)

  • Only part of the spectrum is visible (ROY G BIV)
  • Most ‘light’ cannot be seen by the human eye
  • Different light has different wavelengths
  • Frequency is related to wavelength

The longer the wave the the frequency

slide8

Electromagnetic Radiation (light)

  • Only part of the spectrum is visible (ROY G BIV)
  • Most ‘light’ cannot be seen by the human eye
  • Different light has different wavelengths
  • Frequency is related to wavelength

The longer the wave the shorter the frequency

slide9

Telescopes

Yerkes observatory (WI), 1897

slide10

Telescopes

  • Introduction
slide11

Telescopes

  • Introduction
  • Purpose – to collect light and focus it

Globular Star Cluster M15, Milky Way

slide12

Telescopes

  • Introduction
  • Purpose – to collect light and focus it
  • Telescopes magnify objects

This is the secondary function of a telescope

slide13

Telescopes

  • Introduction
  • Types
slide14

Telescopes

  • Introduction
  • Types
  • Refractor

http://www.yesmag.bc.ca/how_work/telescope.html

slide15

Telescopes

  • Introduction
  • Types
  • Refractor
  • Uses glass lenses
slide16

Telescopes

  • Introduction
  • Types
  • Refractor
  • Uses glass lenses
  • Often made from two lenses – an objective and an eyepiece

http://www.astro-tom.com/telescopes/telescopes.htm

slide17

Telescopes

  • Introduction
  • Types
  • Reflector

http://www.yesmag.bc.ca/how_work/telescope.html

slide18

Telescopes

  • Introduction
  • Types
  • Reflector
  • Uses mirrors
slide19

Telescopes

  • Introduction
  • Types
  • Reflector
  • Uses mirrors
  • Light often strikes a series of mirrors

http://www.astro-tom.com/telescopes/telescopes.htm

slide20

Telescopes

  • Introduction
  • Types
  • Reflector
  • Uses mirrors
  • Light often strikes a series of mirrors

http://www.astro-tom.com/telescopes/telescopes.htm

slide21

Telescopes

  • Introduction
  • Types
  • Benefits
slide22

Telescopes

  • Introduction
  • Types
  • Benefits
  • Can utilize a variety of detectors
slide23

Telescopes

  • Introduction
  • Types
  • Benefits
  • Can utilize a variety of detectors
  • Can focus more light than the eye
slide24

Telescopes

  • Introduction
  • Types
  • Benefits
  • Can utilize a variety of detectors
  • Can focus more light than the eye
  • Can make time exposure photos

http://www.wam.umd.edu/~iblumgar/eclipse.html

slide25

Telescopes

  • Location
slide26

Telescopes

  • Location
  • Away from cities
slide27

Telescopes

  • Location
  • Away from cities
  • On high mountains
slide30

http://www.ucolick.org/~kibrick/

Keck Observatory – Mauna Kea

~14,000 feet

slide31

Telescopes

  • Location
  • Other telescopes
  • Radio-telescopes collect .

http://pics.bothner.com/2002/RadioTelescope/

slide32

Telescopes

  • Location
  • Other telescopes
  • Radio-telescopes collect radiowaves
  • Interferometry links multiple ________
slide33

Telescopes

  • Location
  • Other telescopes
  • Radio-telescopes collect radiowaves
  • Interferometry links multiple telescopes
slide37

Collecting data beyond Earth

  • Space telescopes
  • Spacecraft/probes
slide38

Collecting data beyond Earth

  • Space telescopes
  • Spacecraft/probes
  • Space station
the moon 28 2

Objectives

The Moon – 28.2

  • describe the develop-ment of exploration of the Moon.
  • identify features on the Moon.
  • explain the theories about how the Moon formed.
slide41

Historic Missions

  • Sputnik I (1957)

The first , launched by .

slide42

Historic Missions

  • Sputnik I (1957)

The first satellite, launched by Russia

slide43

Historic Missions

  • Sputnik I (1957)
  • Vostok 1 (1961)

first man in space, he was from .

slide44

Historic Missions

  • Sputnik I (1957)
  • Vostok 1 (1961)

Yuri Gagarin first man in space, he was from Russia.

slide45

Historic Missions

  • Sputnik I (1957)
  • Vostok 1 (1961)
  • Mercury (1961)

was the first American in space.

slide46

Historic Missions

  • Sputnik I (1957)
  • Vostok 1 (1961)
  • Mercury (1961)

Alan Shepard Jr was the first American in space.

slide48

Historic Missions

  • Sputnik I (1957)
  • Vostok 1 (1961)
  • Mercury (1961)
  • Gemini (1963-1966)

This craft was designed to carry people.

slide49

Historic Missions

  • Sputnik I (1957)
  • Vostok 1 (1961)
  • Mercury (1961)
  • Gemini (1963-1966)

This craft was designed to carry 2 people.

slide51

Historic Missions

  • Sputnik I (1957)
  • Vostok 1 (1961)
  • Mercury (1961)
  • Gemini (1963-1966)
  • Apollo 11 (1969)

Landed the first man, , on the moon.

slide52

Historic Missions

  • Sputnik I (1957)
  • Vostok 1 (1961)
  • Mercury (1961)
  • Gemini (1963-1966)
  • Apollo 11 (1969)

Landed the first man, Neil Armstrong, on the moon.

slide55

Lunar Properties

  • Earth’s moon is larger than most

Only Jupiter and Saturn have larger moons.

slide57

Lunar Properties

  • Earth’s moon is larger than most
  • Earth’s moon is farther than most

Most moons are closer to their planets.

slide58

Lunar Properties

  • Earth’s moon is larger than most
  • Earth’s moon is farther than most
  • The moon is solid and rocky

Not icy or gaseous like many other moons.

slide59

Lunar Properties

  • Earth’s moon is larger than most
  • Earth’s moon is farther than most
  • The moon is solid and rocky
  • Earth’s moon is one of the few moons of the inner planets.

Mercury and Venus have none, Mars’ moons are tiny

slide62

The Moon’s Surface

  • Has relatively low albedo (7%)

Albedo describes amount of sunlight reflected.

slide63

The Moon’s Surface

  • Has relatively low albedo (7%)
  • Temperatures fluctuate a lot (from 400K to 100K)

This is due to the moon’s lack of .

slide64

The Moon’s Surface

  • Has relatively low albedo (7%)
  • Temperatures fluctuate a lot (from 400K to 100K)

This is due to the moon’s lack of an atmosphere.

slide65

The Moon’s Surface

  • Has relatively low albedo (7%)
  • Temperatures fluctuate a lot (from 400K to 100K)
  • Highlands

Light in color, mountainous, and cratered.

slide66

The Moon’s Surface

  • Has relatively low albedo (7%)
  • Temperatures fluctuate a lot (from 400K to 100K)
  • Highlands
  • Maria

Dark, smooth plains, associated with rilles (long, narrow straight valley

slide67

The Moon’s Surface

  • Impact craters knock out ejecta.

Material expelled from crater. Long strands of ejecta are called rays.

slide68

The Moon’s Surface

  • Impact craters knock out ejecta.
  • Moons craters are easier to see than Earth’s.

This is because there is more on Earth.

slide69

The Moon’s Surface

  • Impact craters knock out ejecta.
  • Moons craters are easier to see than Earth’s.

This is because there is more weathering on Earth.

slide71

History

  • Believed to be 3.8 – 4.6 byo.

Based on radioisotope dating of rocks.

slide72

History

  • Believed to be 3.8 – 4.6 byo.
  • Bombarded heavily by projectiles for first 800 million years.

Most of the craters have dark ejecta meaning they’re old.

slide73

History

  • Believed to be 3.8 – 4.6 byo.
  • Bombarded heavily by projectiles for first 800 million years.
  • This action produced regolith.

This is the loose, ground up moon rock.

slide74

History

  • Believed to be 3.8 – 4.6 byo.
  • Bombarded heavily by projectiles for first 800 million years.
  • This action produced regolith.
  • Maria formed later from magma.

This explains the darker color.

slide75

History

  • Believed to be 3.8 – 4.6 byo.
  • Bombarded heavily by projectiles for first 800 million years.
  • This action produced regolith.
  • Maria formed later from magma.
  • Flowing lava created rilles.

Not created by flowing water, but flowing lava.

slide77

Formation Theories

  • Capture Theory

Moon formed elsewhere and was captured by Earth’s gravity.

slide78

Formation Theories

  • Capture Theory
  • How did object slow down?
slide79

Formation Theories

  • Capture Theory
  • How did object slow down?
  • What explains similar composition to Earth’s?
slide80

Formation Theories

  • Capture Theory
  • Simultaneous Formation Theory

Moon and Earth formed in space at same time, near each other

slide81

Formation Theories

  • Capture Theory
  • Simultaneous Formation Theory
  • Explains same composition and proximity.
slide82

Formation Theories

  • Capture Theory
  • Simultaneous Formation Theory
  • Explains same composition and proximity.
  • Does not explain Earth’s higher iron content.
slide84

Formation Theories

  • Impact Theory

Earth was hit by Mars-size object, and layers of crust/mantle material were ejected.

slide85

Formation Theories

  • Impact Theory
  • Moon received iron-poor material.
slide86

Formation Theories

  • Impact Theory
  • Moon received iron-poor material.
  • Heat evaporated water from moon.
sun moon earth system 28 3

Objectives

Sun-Moon-Earth System – 28.3

  • Identify the relative positions and motions of Earth, the Sun, and the Moon
  • Describe the phases of the Moon.
  • Explain eclipses of the Sun and Moon.
slide89

Motion

We are moving at a speed of mph around the sun (and rotating about mph).

slide90

Motion

We are moving at a speed of 67,000 mph around the sun (and rotating about 1000 mph).

slide91

Motion

  • Evidence of motion

How do we know there is motion?

slide92

Motion

  • Evidence of motion
  • Apparent motion of sun
slide93

Motion

  • Evidence of motion
  • Apparent motion of sun
  • Apparent motion of moon

http://www.nasa.gov/vision/universe/watchtheskies/20jun_moonillusion.html

slide94

Motion

  • Evidence of motion
  • Apparent motion of sun
  • Apparent motion of moon
  • Apparent motion of stars

http://www.sufism.org/society/articles/sema_camille.html

slide95

Motion

  • Evidence of motion
  • Rate of motion

Each day the sun moves an apparent 360º. This means it appears to move º/minute.

slide96

Motion

  • Evidence of motion
  • Rate of motion

Each day the sun moves an apparent 360º. This means it appears to move 0.25 º/minute.

slide97

Motion

  • Evidence of motion
  • Rate of motion
  • How do we know Earth is moving?

. . .and not the rest of the universe?

slide98

Motion

  • Evidence of motion
  • Rate of motion
  • How do we know Earth is moving?
  • A Foucault pendulum

http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Foucault_pendulum

slide99

Motion

  • Evidence of motion
  • Rate of motion
  • How do we know Earth is moving?
  • A Foucault pendulum
  • Coriolis effect

http://www.atmos.ucla.edu

slide101

Earth’s Tilt

  • Earth moves in a plane called the ecliptic
slide102

Earth’s Tilt

  • Earth moves in a plane called the ecliptic
  • Earth’s axis of rotation is not perpendicular to its ecliptic

It tilts by .

slide103

Earth’s Tilt

  • Earth moves in a plane called the ecliptic
  • Earth’s axis of rotation is not perpendicular to its ecliptic

23.5º

It tilts by 23.5º.

slide104

Earth’s Tilt

  • Earth moves in a plane called the ecliptic
  • Earth’s axis of rotation is not perpendicular to its ecliptic
  • In the Northern hemisphere the Sun’s altitude in the sky is higher in the .
slide106

Earth’s Tilt

  • Earth moves in a plane called the ecliptic
  • Earth’s axis of rotation is not perpendicular to its ecliptic
  • In the Northern hemisphere the Sun’s altitude in the sky is higher in the summer.
slide107

Earth’s Tilt

  • The solstices
slide108

Earth’s Tilt

  • The solstices
  • Summer
slide109

Earth’s Tilt

  • The solstices
  • Summer
  • “Longest day” of the year (in Northern hemisphere)
slide110

Earth’s Tilt

  • The solstices
  • Summer
  • “Longest day” of the year (in Northern hemisphere)
  • Sun is directly overhead at Tropic of Cancer (23.5º N)
slide111

Earth’s Tilt

  • The solstices
  • Summer
  • “Longest day” of the year (in Northern hemisphere)
  • Sun is directly overhead at Tropic of Cancer (23.5º N)
  • Occurs around June 21
slide112

Earth’s Tilt

  • The solstices
  • Summer
  • “Longest day” of the year (in Northern hemisphere)
  • Sun is directly overhead at Tropic of Cancer (23.5º N)
  • Occurs around June 21
  • Sun never sets in Arctic circle
slide114

Earth’s Tilt

  • The solstices
  • Summer
  • Winter
slide115

Earth’s Tilt

  • The solstices
  • Summer
  • Winter
  • Most hours of darkness (in N. hemisphere)
slide116

Earth’s Tilt

  • The solstices
  • Summer
  • Winter
  • Most hours of darkness (in N. hemisphere)
  • Sun is directly overhead at Tropic of Capricorn (23.5º S)
slide117

Earth’s Tilt

  • The solstices
  • Summer
  • Winter
  • Most hours of darkness (in N. hemisphere)
  • Sun is directly overhead at Tropic of Capricorn (23.5º S)
  • Occurs around December 21
slide118

Earth’s Tilt

  • The solstices
  • Summer
  • Winter
  • Most hours of darkness (in N. hemisphere)
  • Sun is directly overhead at Tropic of Capricorn (23.5º S)
  • Occurs around December 21
  • Sun never rises in Arctic circle
slide120

Earth’s Tilt

  • The solstices
  • Summer
  • Winter
  • Equinoxes
slide121

Earth’s Tilt

  • The solstices
  • Summer
  • Winter
  • Equinoxes
  • Occur at midpoint between solstices
slide122

Earth’s Tilt

  • The solstices
  • Summer
  • Winter
  • Equinoxes
  • Occur at midpoint between solstices
  • Sun directly overhead at equator
slide123

Earth’s Tilt

  • The solstices
  • Summer
  • Winter
  • Equinoxes
  • Occur at midpoint between solstices
  • Sun directly overhead at equator
  • Both hemispheres receive equal sunlight
slide124

Self Check

  • At which point is summer solstice?
slide125

Self Check

  • At which point is summer solstice?
  • At which point is the vernal equinox
slide127

Go to diagram

  • Phases of the Moon
  • Names of the Phases
slide128

Go to diagram

  • Phases of the Moon
  • Names of the Phases
  • New moon

The moon is between Earth and the Sun – we don’t see the lit surface

slide129

Go to diagram

  • Phases of the Moon
  • Names of the Phases
  • New moon
  • Waxing crescent

Waxing means increasing

slide130

Go to diagram

  • Phases of the Moon
  • Names of the Phases
  • New moon
  • Waxing crescent
  • First quarter

Observed ¼ of the way through a lunar month

slide131

Go to diagram

  • Phases of the Moon
  • Names of the Phases
  • New moon
  • Waxing crescent
  • First quarter
  • Waxing gibbous

Gibbous means more than ½ but less than full

slide132

Go to diagram

  • Phases of the Moon
  • Names of the Phases
  • Full moon

The moon is on opposite sides of the Earth from the Sun – we see the entire lit surface

slide133

Go to diagram

  • Phases of the Moon
  • Names of the Phases
  • Full moon
  • Waning gibbous

Waning means decreasing in size/intensity

slide134

Go to diagram

  • Phases of the Moon
  • Names of the Phases
  • Full moon
  • Waning gibbous
  • Third quarter

Observed ¾ into the lunar month

slide135

Go to diagram

  • Phases of the Moon
  • Names of the Phases
  • Full moon
  • Waning gibbous
  • Third quarter
  • Waning crescent
slide136

Phases of the Moon

  • Names of the Phases
  • Synchronous Rotation

For each revolution of the moon it makes one rotation.

slide138

Phases of the Moon

  • Timing
  • It takes the moon about 27.3 days to complete its (a lunar month).
slide139

Phases of the Moon

  • Timing
  • It takes the moon about 27.3 days to complete its orbit (a lunar month).
  • During 24 hours the moon moves 1/27.3 of its orbit which = º.
slide140

Phases of the Moon

  • Timing
  • It takes the moon about 27.3 days to complete its orbit (a lunar month).
  • During 24 hours the moon moves 1/27.3 of its orbit which = 13º.
  • This means the Earth must rotate an extra 13º to ‘catch up to the moon’.

Each night the moonrise occurs about minutes later.

slide141

Phases of the Moon

  • Timing
  • It takes the moon about 27.3 days to complete its orbit (a lunar month).
  • During 24 hours the moon moves 1/27.3 of its orbit which = 13º.
  • This means the Earth must rotate an extra 13º to ‘catch up to the moon’.

Each night the moonrise occurs about 50 minutes later.

slide144

Eclipses

  • Solar Eclipse
slide145

Eclipses

  • Solar Eclipse
  • The moon creates a shadow that covers part of the Earth

June 29, 2006 Solar Eclipse

slide146

Eclipses

  • Solar Eclipse
  • The moon creates a shadow that covers part of the Earth
  • The Umbra is the darker, inner part of the shadow.

If the umbra passes over your location you see no sun ( Eclipse)

slide147

Eclipses

  • Solar Eclipse
  • The moon creates a shadow that covers part of the Earth
  • The Umbra is the darker, inner part of the shadow.

If the umbra passes over your location you see no sun (Total Eclipse)

slide148

Eclipses

  • Solar Eclipse
  • The moon creates a shadow that covers part of the Earth
  • The Umbra is the darker, inner part of the shadow.
  • The Penumbra is the lighter, outer shadow.

If the penumbra passes over your location you see some of the sun ( Eclipse)

slide149

Eclipses

  • Solar Eclipse
  • The moon creates a shadow that covers part of the Earth
  • The Umbra is the darker, inner part of the shadow.
  • The Penumbra is the lighter, outer shadow.

If the penumbra passes over your location you see some of the sun (Partial Eclipse)

slide152

Eclipses

  • Solar Eclipse
  • Annular Eclipse

Occurs when the Earth/Moon system are separated by maximum distance.

slide153

Eclipses

  • Solar Eclipse
  • Annular Eclipse
  • Apogee

Furthest distance between Moon and Earth.

slide154

Eclipses

  • Solar Eclipse
  • Annular Eclipse
  • Apogee
  • Perigee

Smallest distance between Moon and Earth.

slide155

Eclipses

  • Lunar Eclipse

Moon is partially blocked by the .

slide156

Eclipses

  • Lunar Eclipse

Moon is partially blocked by the Sun.

slide157

Eclipses

  • Lunar Eclipse
  • These last longer than Solar eclipses because. . .
slide158

Eclipses

  • Lunar Eclipse
  • These last longer than Solar eclipses because. . .
  • Even though moon passes through umbra, it is not completely dark because. . .