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Concrete: Fundamentals. Prepared by: Marcia C. Belcher Construction Engineering Technology. Common Uses. Slabs (roadways, bridges, airstrips) Beams & Columns Parapets (highways) Piers (structures, bridges) Pipe Foundations (large and small) Retaining Structures (dams).

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concrete fundamentals

Concrete: Fundamentals

Prepared by:

Marcia C. Belcher

Construction Engineering Technology

common uses
Common Uses
  • Slabs (roadways, bridges, airstrips)
  • Beams & Columns
  • Parapets (highways)
  • Piers (structures, bridges)
  • Pipe
  • Foundations (large and small)
  • Retaining Structures (dams)
special needs of concrete
Special Needs of Concrete
  • Exposure & use conditions require attention in mix design.
    • Marine environment
    • De-icing salt exposure
    • Freeze-thaw
    • Hi sulfate exposure
    • Early use of structure (bridge decks)
    • Very thick pours (homogenous pours like earth dams & parapets)
    • Very slender elements (pipe)
what can we do to modify concrete design
What Can We Do To Modify Concrete Design
  • Add plasticizers to increase workability
  • Use larger aggregates to increase strength
  • Reduce W/C ratio to increase strength
  • Use air entrainment to improve durability
  • Use pozzolans to improve chloride resistance
  • Use “accelerators” increase cure rate for hi early strength
  • Use set retarders or fly ash to decrease internal temperature & reduce shrinkage cracking
portland cement types
Portland Cement Types
  • The ingredients in the Portland cement can be modified to produce various properties.
  • These are called “Types”
portland cement types type i
Portland Cement Types – Type I
  • General Purpose
  • Most commonly used
  • No special curing, setting or resistance characteristics
  • Suitable where no special properties are required
type ii
Type II
  • Type II cement contains no more than 8% tricalcium aluminate (C3A) for moderate sulfate resistance.
  • Increases resistance to sulfate attack over Type I
  • Lower heat of hydration
  • Used for mass pours such as bridge piers
  • Used where ground water contains high sulfate levels
type iii high early strength
Type III – High Early Strength
  • Similar to Type I cements except it is ground finer
  • This increased hydration rate.
  • Results in rapid curing & higher early strengths.
  • Results in higher heat of hydration
  • Used in cold weather concreting
  • Used when early strength is required
type iv
Type IV
  • Hi levels of dicalcium silicate and tetracalcium aluminoferrite
  • Used in massive concrete structures where heat generated from hydration must be minimized.
  • Low heat of hydration = slow strength development
  • Used for mass pours such as dams where shrinkage problems may occur
type ia iia iiia iva
Type IA, IIA, IIIA, IVA
  • “A” implies that air entraining is added to the portland cement