Ch 3- HIST 1301. Colonial Assemblies. Colonies had larger voting block that England Colonist more politically active than Britons Colonies not like Britain- do not have the House of Commons and House of Lords like England. Virtual vs Actual Representation.
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Colonial Assemblies • Colonies had larger voting block that England • Colonist more politically active than Britons • Colonies not like Britain- do not have the House of Commons and House of Lords like England
Virtual vs Actual Representation • English Parliament was to( in theory) represent not just one voting group/block but represents all Brits. In this theory England believed that the Colonies did not need a “representative” in Parliament. In their minds because the Colonies belonged to England the colonist were represented just like Brits in England.
The Colonial Governors were paid by the Colonial assemblies. Therefore, Governors did not speak out often against the assemblies. When they did the were chastised, harassed, run out of town, etc
Enlightenment • 1733-1734 Began • Alexander Pope Essay on Man “ The suggestions that man, not God to scan’: the proper study of man is man.” • Suggested that man, not God was the proper focus of human inquiry. This idea is the basis of the Enlightenment.
The Enlightenment also went against John Winthrop and other strict Puritans idea of original sin based on Adam in the Bible. • John Locke says that humans are born with a blank slate and society develops and teaches moral lessons.
Great Awakening • As Enlightenment ideas began to spread another movement- The Great Awakening- began to emerge. • People began to reject the strict Puritan evangelical ideas and began replaced it with a more emotional style of worship.
Georgia • James Oglethorpe- founder of Georgia • For those in debt • Given support by Parliament and King George II. • Very successful • Became a champion of prison reform • Oglethorpe also wanted to invade Spanish America ( now Florida) in 1740. The attempt failed
Jenkins Ear • 1739- England vs Spain. • British ships were smuggling goods into Spain. Spain captured Capt. Robert Jenkins ship( of England) and cut off his ear. When Jenkins testified in Parliament- they were outraged. England went to war with Spain 1739-1748 over trade- called the War of Jenkin’s ear.
King George’s War • In the mean time another war is being fought by England. This War is with France. 1744-1748. Fought in the American colonies and France entered the war as an ally to Spain. Spain would become less involved but the French stayed very aggressive. • War was over the area in the Ohio river valley
Middle Ground • Land that Indians inhabit. • French and Indians had trade agreements in this territory but England thought the trade should be controlled and taxed by them. • France and Indians disagreed. • 1757 Britain began to attempt to remove the French from what is now Quebec City and Montreal in Canada.
England est. the Ohio Company of Virginia in 1747 to explore the region • French did not like that and established more forts in the area. • Duquesne (what is now Pittsburgh) became a key fort. The English wanted to remove the French from the fort. George Washington was assigned by the English to take the fort. His attempts failed. Edward Braddock was then assigned and he and his troops failed too.
French and Indian War • Britain and France were at war almost constantly since the late 17th century primarily over trading rights and the land just west of the colonies. The French controlled what is now Canada all the way down the region by Lake Erie. In between the lands controlled by the English and French is what is called the Middle ground.
It was not until 1758 that the English, under the command of Jeffery Amherst, began to win against the French and the Indians. • Montreal the capital of Canada fell to the English in 1760 ending France’s domination • In 1763 Treaty of Paris ends the French and Indian war. Quebec culturally was still French but England now controlled all of Canada
Canada • Canada evolves into an “independent” country from England over time. • Becomes independent in theory in 1867 • 1871 British troops leave Canada • Canada est. its own supreme court in 1875 • Canada’s involvement in WWI is what really solidified them as independent power • Currently have own Prime Minister but maintains Queen Elizabeth II as Constitutional Head of State