Alpha Magnetic Spectrometer (AMS) on International Space Station (ISS) - PowerPoint PPT Presentation

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Alpha Magnetic Spectrometer (AMS) on International Space Station (ISS)

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  1. Alpha Magnetic Spectrometer (AMS) on International Space Station (ISS) Behcet Alpat I.N.F.N. Perugia Frontier Detectors for Frontier Physics 8th Pisa Meeting on Advanced Detectors May 21-27, 2000 – La Biodola, Isola d’Elba, Italy B. Alpat, May 21-27, 2000, Elba

  2. The AMS Physics • To search for Antimatter (He,C) in space with a sensitivity of 103 to 104 better than current limits. • To search for dark matter • High statistics precision measurements of e,  and p spectrum. • To study Astrophysics. • High statistics precision measurements of D, 3He, 4He, B, C, 9Be, 10Be spectrum • B/C: to understand CR propagation in the Galaxy (parameters of galactic wind). • 10Be/9Be: to determine CR confinement time in the Galaxy. B. Alpat, May 21-27, 2000, Elba

  3. AMS-01 Configuration on STS-91 Flight STS-91 Flight, June 2-12th, 1998 • Magnet: Nd2Fe14B, BL2= 0.15 TM2 • T.o.F: Four planes of scintillators; •  and Z measurements, up/down separation • Tracker: Six planes of ds silicon detectors; • Charge sign, dE/dX up to Z=8, Rigidity (p/Z) • Anticounters: • Veto stray trajectories and bckgnd particles from magnet walls • Aerogel Threshold Čerenkov: •  measurements (13 GeV/c) for better e/p separation • Low Energy Particle Shielding (LEPS): • Carbon fibre, shield from low energy (<5MeV) particles B. Alpat, May 21-27, 2000, Elba

  4. AMS-01: STS-91 Flight Results G.F.:  3000 cm2.sr MDR:  400 GV Energy Range: 100 MeV/n<Ek< 300 GeV/n Electronics channels:  70000 Power:  1 kW • 30 hours before and 105 hours after rendezvous with MIR (total of 135 hours including 11 hours of albedo measurements) • Shuttle altitude ranged from 320 to 390 km • Latitudes 51.7°, All longitudes (except S.A.A.) • A total of 100 million events recorded with event rates ranging from 100 Hz to 700 Hz (corresponding to 95%40% DAQ livetime) B. Alpat, May 21-27, 2000, Elba

  5. AMS-01 on Discovery during STS-91 Flight B. Alpat, May 21-27, 2000, Elba

  6. AMS-01: STS-91 Flight Results (2) It was a successful flight !! • Detector test in actual space conditions • Good performance of all subsystems • Physics results: • Antimatter search • Charged cosmic ray spectra (p,,e,D,He,N) • Geomagnetic effects on cosmic ray B. Alpat, May 21-27, 2000, Elba

  7. AMS-01 STS-91 Flight Physics Results (1) NHe/NHe = 1.1·10-6 Same spectrum for He, He (Ref. Phys. Lett. B461(1999)387-396) Any Spectrum from He B. Alpat, May 21-27, 2000, Elba

  8. AMS-01 STS-91 Flight Physics Results (2) (Ref. Phys. Lett. B472(2000)215-226) B. Alpat, May 21-27, 2000, Elba

  9. AMS on ISS  AMS-02 B. Alpat, May 21-27, 2000, Elba

  10. AMS-02 on ISS B. Alpat, May 21-27, 2000, Elba

  11. AMS-02 on ISS B. Alpat, May 21-27, 2000, Elba

  12. AMS-02 Superconducting Magnet (1) B. Alpat, May 21-27, 2000, Elba

  13. AMS-02 Superconducting Magnet (2)Critical Parameters Nominal Bending Power: 0.85 Tm2 Stray field @ radius of 230 cm: < 15.2 mT Peak in coil: 6.6 T N. of Coils: 2 Dipoles, 20 racetracks Magnetic Torque: 0.272 Nm Conductor: NbTi wire, Aluminum stabilized Operating Temperature: 1.8 K @ 20 mbar (2600 lt superfluid Helium) Operating Current: 450 A Power: 1.5 kW (peak, during ramp), 400 W (maintenance) Endurance: 27 to 33 months (w cryocoolers) Weight: about 3 tons (whole magnetic system) Dimensions: 2.7 m of diameter and 1.5 m of max height B. Alpat, May 21-27, 2000, Elba

  14. AMS-02 Synchrotron Radiation Detector • Aim: • Identify the charge of TeV electrons and PeV nuclei using their synchrotron radiation in the earth’s magnetic field by observing synchrotron photons (Ethr KeV and eV respectively) in detector (2x3 m2). • Photon’s position, counting and energy measurements give info on: • Particle’s charge sign, estimation on primary electron momentum hence distinguish electrons from nuclei. • April 2001, a small stand-alone detector (PSRD) will fly as secondary payload on the Space Shuttle. • For this flight, 16 YAlO3:Ce(YAP) scintillating crystals of size 25x25x2 mm3 will be coupled directly to Hamamatsu R5900U PMTs. • SRD will be installed on AMS-02 if PSRD will give good results B. Alpat, May 21-27, 2000, Elba

  15. AMS-02 Transition Radiation Detector (1) • (Straw Drift Tube System), Aim: • Non-destructive information for particle identification in addition to electromagnetic calorimeter • Identification of hadrons (’s against K’s and p’s) and electrons • Final goal is good e/h separation between 1-2 (TRthr) GeV to about 100 GeV (hadrons start to radiate) • e/p Rejection 1.5 to 4 10-3 with  90%95% electron efficiency • 6 mm diameter, 1.3 to 2 m long straw tubes • Radiators: Foam (Airex) or (10 m or 16 m) fibre (0.06 g/cm3) • Gas mixture: Xe/CO2 80/20, gain  2.5 104 • Operating temperature interval: +10° C to + 25° C (gradient  1 K) • Weight: 484 kg (350 kg detector) • Test beam with e and p (3.5 to 15 GeV) • Tests and studies are underway for the final choice of radiator, gas mixture and GCPS, vacuum properties of straw tubes, radiator outgassing,mechanical stability etc. B. Alpat, May 21-27, 2000, Elba

  16. AMS-02 Time of Flight System (1) • Aim: • Fast Trigger (L1) to the experiment • ToF measurements of the particles w up/down resolution @ 10-8 level • e/p separation up to about 1.5 GeV • Absolute charge determination (in addition to tracker) • Total Surface: 8 m2 • Four layers each composed by 11cm wide (1cm thick) scintillator paddles • Each paddle seen by 2 PMT at both ends • Total PMT: 224 (Hamamatsu fine-mesh tubes, space qualified, operates in B of 13 kGauss, @ 2kV, 2 PMT/ counter-end) • The angle between the field and PMT axis should be <45° • Total weight: 250 kg • INFN Bologna B. Alpat, May 21-27, 2000, Elba

  17. AMS-02 Time of Flight System (2) B. Alpat, May 21-27, 2000, Elba

  18. AMS-02 Time of Flight System (3)(T.o.F. Resolution from AMS-01) B. Alpat, May 21-27, 2000, Elba

  19. AMS-02 Tracker (1) • Aim: • Rigidity (P/Ze) measurements • Sign of Charge • Absolute Charge (dE/dX , in addition to ToF system) • Tracker detector based on 8 thin layers of double-sided silicon microstrips, with a spatial resolution better than 10 mm,  200.000 of electronics channel and  800 W of power. • A complex detector, qualified for operation in space, with its  6 m2 of active surface will be the largest ever built before the LHC @ CERN. B. Alpat, May 21-27, 2000, Elba

  20. AMS-02 Tracker (2) • Operating Temperature: -10/+25 °C • Power Dissipation on the Detector: 1 W/ladder, in total 192 ladders • dP/P =  2 % @ 1 GeV ( 8% in AMS-01) (for protons) • The planes alignment will be monitored by a IR laser alignment system (as in case of AMS-01). • INFN Perugia B. Alpat, May 21-27, 2000, Elba

  21. AMS-02 Tracker (3)(from AMS-01) B. Alpat, May 21-27, 2000, Elba

  22. AMS-02 Tracker (4) B. Alpat, May 21-27, 2000, Elba

  23. AMS-02 Tracker (5) B. Alpat, May 21-27, 2000, Elba

  24. AMS-02 Tracker (6) B. Alpat, May 21-27, 2000, Elba

  25. AMS-02 Ring Imaging Cerenkov Detector (1) • Aim: • High efficiency rejection of albedo particles for momenta above threshold • Measurement of particle velocity, mass determination (with P measurement from Tracker) • dM/M=dP/P × 2d/ • Isotope identification below masses up to A= 25 (10Be/9Be, 3He/4He etc.) and identification of chemical elements up Z  26 (up to Tracker rigidity limit) • High level redundancy for e/p separation B. Alpat, May 21-27, 2000, Elba

  26. AMS-02 Ring Imaging Cerenkov Detector (2) • Acceptance :  0.4 m2.sr • Radiator (NaF) : n=1.15 (2 cm thick) or n=1.34 (1 cm) • Light Yield (N) :  50 • PMTs are pixelized version of Hamamatsu R5900 (16 pixels, 0.45x0.45 cm2 each) • Goal is: • d/  0.1 %, p=1.7 to 7.3 GeV/c/amu (for n=1.15) • 9Be and 10Be separation w Mass Resolution of  0.2 % up to 10 GeV • INFN Bologna and ASI B. Alpat, May 21-27, 2000, Elba

  27. AMS-02 Ring Imaging Cerenkov Detector (3) B. Alpat, May 21-27, 2000, Elba

  28. AMS-02 Ring Imaging Cerenkov Detector (4) B. Alpat, May 21-27, 2000, Elba

  29. AMS-02 Ring Imaging Cerenkov Detector (5) B. Alpat, May 21-27, 2000, Elba

  30. AMS-02 Electromagnetic Calorimeter (1) • Aim: • e/h separation @ 10-4 level in 1  1000 GeV range • High energy  detection w good angular and energy resolution • Distinct signature for antinuclei • Measurement of neutral (albedo) particles (,n,n) • Energy Resolution (Simul.)  6.1 %  3.1 % @ 1 GeV  4.4 %  1.2 % @ 10 GeV  1.46 %  0.2 % @ 100 GeV • INFN Pisa B. Alpat, May 21-27, 2000, Elba

  31. AMS-02 Electromagnetic Calorimeter (1) B. Alpat, May 21-27, 2000, Elba

  32. AMS-02 Electromagnetic Calorimeter (2) B. Alpat, May 21-27, 2000, Elba

  33. AMS-02 Electromagnetic Calorimeter (3) B. Alpat, May 21-27, 2000, Elba

  34. AMS-02 DAQ System (1) • Link Speed: • Max raw link speed is 100 Mbps • Max raw data transfer rate is  10 Mbytes/sec • Data transfer rate w overhead is  5 Mbytes/sec • Input data rate: • Max event rate is  2 kHz • Average data size is  2 Kbytes • Max input data rate is  4 Mbytes/sec • Total 20-24 crates , max input data rate from each crate is  2 Kbytes/sec • Output data rate: • Max output data rate is 100 Mbps • Two links for data transfer • Further data reduction on board with Level-3 algorithm (Solutions; DSP or PowerPC750 from Lockheed Martin) • IEEE1355 (Space Wire) standard at all board and crate level communications B. Alpat, May 21-27, 2000, Elba

  35. AMS-02 DAQ System (2) B. Alpat, May 21-27, 2000, Elba

  36. AMS-02 Physics on ISS (1) B. Alpat, May 21-27, 2000, Elba

  37. AMS-02 Physics on ISS (2) B. Alpat, May 21-27, 2000, Elba

  38. AMS-02 Physics on ISS (3) B. Alpat, May 21-27, 2000, Elba

  39. AMS-02 on ISS B. Alpat, May 21-27, 2000, Elba

  40. Conclusions • AMS-01 has successfully been tested during STS-91 flight providing important information on operating in actual space conditions • AMS-01 data allows to study the primary and trapped CR fluxes in the energy range from 100 MeV to about 100 GeV • AMS-02 is being built for the launch with the UF4 during fall 2003 • AMS-02 will extend the accurate measurements of CR spectra to unexplored TeV region opening a new window for the search for Antimatter and Darkmatter. B. Alpat, May 21-27, 2000, Elba