ETHICS II Final Exam Study Guide
Final Exam Study Guide • A. Responses to Suffering: Hopelessness, Individualism, Enlightened Self Interest, Compassion “NIMBYism”. • Causes of Suffering. Creation. Humans. Original Sin.
Final Exam Study Guide • B. Hebrews and the quest for the Promised Land” Hope for oppressed people that deliverance is possible. Rules of Conduct. The Ten Commandments, The Shema Israel, Precursor to the Great Commandment, Regulations from Dt. 26:12.
Final Exam Study Guide • C. Rerum Novarum (On the Condition of Labor) criticized the abuses of liberal capitalism; Natural Law - Class Cooperation. Dignity of work. Just wage and (unions). Role of state. Private ownership. Defense of poor. Seven themes of Catholic Social teaching. Life and dignity of the Human person. Participation: the call to family and community. The option for the poor and vulnerable. The dignity of work and the rights of workers. Solidarity. Care for God’s creation.
Final Exam Study Guide • D. Circle of Faith. Awareness, Analysis, Action. Human power: “Power over” and “Power with”.
Final Exam Study Guide • E. Obeying the cycle of life and death. Catholic Church’s “seamless garment approach”. Abortion and the Church’s position on abortion. Death Penalty. Flawed Punishment. Innocents included. Judas, Remorse, Peter, Making Amends-Second Chances. Euthanasia – early termination of life. Christ. Suffering.
Final Exam Study Guide • F. Three Key Themes of Paul’s Letter to the Corinthians (I). Different Gifts, Same Love; We need one another; • Solidarity is the key. U.S. Bishops: Economic Justice for All” Basic requirements for community life. Right and Responsibility to contribute to common good. Right to benefits and resources of community
Final Exam Study Guide • G. Exclusion Excuses. Stereotypes, inaccurate or incomplete knowledge. Justifying sinful or bad behavior. Whether good or bad, basing our attitudes on stereotypes is disrespectful. Metamorphosis of Exclusion. Stereotypes to prejudice to discrimination. • Catholic Bishops of Chicago: “Moving Beyond Racism”… They describe that racism is a personal sin and a social disorder. Other means of discrimination. Wage gap, Education gap, Housing gap. Ways people harm others through discrimination. Working to Create Inclusive Communities.
Final Exam Study Guide • H. The Goodness of Work. needs, dignity, common good, God’s work. Work providing, contributing and cooperating. When Good Work is denied. machines, unemployed, barred (discrimination). denied = dehumanized. Creating Human-centered Work. Parable Matt 20:1-15. Human-centered Work. “On Human Work”. Subjective (experience) more important. Objective (production). • “The basis for value... Work is for man and not man for work. ”The parable of the laborers in the vineyard. Rights and Responsibilities of Workers. The right to work, means of providing and fulfilling responsibility, a just wage -respect for worker’s family-a safe work environment, join a union, equal treatment, right to private property and economic initiative (self-employed). Work’s Promise. Indirect employers, Cooperation. Special Role of Business Leaders.
Final Exam Study Guide • I. Life On the Edge. Issues: Nearness of Death, Marginalization, Living on the Edge, Cycle of Poverty, Barriers to Full Development. Maslow’s Hierarchy of Needs, Physical, Safety, Love, Self-esteem, Self-actualization. The meaning of Home: Difference between having shelter /having home. • Community work on the problem of homelessness. About 700,000 homeless each night. 2 million homeless sometime in a year. Housing crisis. Housing costs too much of income. Inadequate Housing. Poor suffer from Chronic Hunger. Two Forms: Starvation and Malnutrition.
Final Exam Study Guide • J. Inadequate Education Children who live in poverty lag behind. Race-based stereotypes and discrimination. Poorer schools that receive less funding for materials, facilities, and general maintenance. • NAACP believes that the problem is rooted on housing, transportation, and education policies that concentrate poor and minority children in central inner-city schools. Poverty in the World’s Poorest Nations. Hunger, unsanitary conditions, unhealthy drinking water, disease. Homelessness, civil and political unrest. “Ethnic Cleansing”. • Legacy of Colonialism. Main goal was to enrich European countries. Borders drawn to enhance control. Current countries grow cash crops established under colonial times for export, “Banana Republics”. Government by the Elite. Foreign Aid problems, Discrimination. Arms Sales. Debt Crisis.
Final Exam Study Guide • K. Living Simply. Making Choices that deepen our joy, focus on essentials of life. The Wealth Gap. The richest 20% consume 86 % of world’s goods and services. US 5% of world pop. 25% G&S. In US rich 20% have 50% income, poorest 20% have 3.6%. • Living Crazily. Materialistic and worries about image (looking good). Poverty of Being. When we don’t develop our potential of images of God. Illusion that we can fill up our need for God with material things or possessions. Consumerism: buying what we don’t need.
Final Exam Study Guide • L. Eucharist and Sharing. Uniting with Christ and the poor. (1Cor 11:22). Paul scolds those who receive the Eucharist when others go hungry. Sharing loaves and fishes (Mk 6:37-38) Example of helping others and God’s assistance to do this. People are more Important. Earth is God’s gift for all people. We are called to care for creation. Learning to share. • Economic Justice For All teaches us to measure an economy by how it touches human life. Economics guided by respect for human rights, participation in community, options for the poor.. Trust in God, not possessions. (Luke 12:22-31 and Mark 6:42). Sharing is made possible from God’s trust. Economy based on love not selfishness.
Final Exam Study Guide • M. Living Simply to enhance our well being. Focus on: Human Dignity. Relationships. Environment. Trust in God. • The Example of the Catholic Worker House. “Catholic Worker Positions” By Dorothy Day. • Lifestyles: Poverty. Simplicity. Excess. Living simply builds community. Sharing to Overcome Poverty, reducing our dependence on material goods. Direct Action, feeding the hungry.
Catholic Worker Positions • IN ECONOMICS - guiding principles is production for profit and because production determines needs. • A just order provides necessities of life for all, needs determine production. • From each according to his ability, to each according to his needs. • Non-producing class maintained by the labor of others • The laborer is systematically robbed of wealth he produces over and above what is need for his bare maintenance.
Catholic Worker Positions • IN PSYCHOLOGY - capitalist society fails to recognize whole nature of man but rather regards him • an economic factor in production. • an item in the expense sheet of the employer. • Profit determines what type of work he shall do. • In a just order • work is in accord with human values, • not if it brings a profit. • Work is for man, man is not for work.
Catholic Worker Positions • IN MORALS - because capitalism is maintained by class war. • A conflict • Aim of the employer to obtain labor as cheaply as possible • Aim of labor get the highest pay as possible • Buy the products produced as cheaply as possible • Solution: members perform different functions • no longer an employer-wage-earner relationship.
Final Exam Study Guide • N. Caring for Creation: Stewardship. Human Dignity and care for creation are interrelated. Respect for our brothers and sisters, including future generations. From Catechism #340. “God wills the interdependence of creatures…” Integrity of Creation. • Pope John Paul II: Humanity’s role is to explore the order of the universe and safeguard its integrity. Warning signs. When we are not good stewards creation lets us know. • Environmental problems and damage show up in other creatures around us or in our own health problems. Vanishing rainforests and species. Subsistence Farming. Chico Mendes, the forest and its people.
Final Exam Study Guide • Global Warming. Greenhouse Gases. Pollution and over stimulation of the land. Excessive consumption. Reconciling with Creation. Living in Harmony. Call to Stewardship. • Lessons form Genesis. Power over the earth. Keys to stewardship, respect for the Earth, gift for common good, caring for creation. • Sustaining the Earth. Ecological economics, hidden economic value, value for life, value from God. Life as stewards. Finding a balance, sustainable development. Ecotourism.
Final Exam Study Guide • O. Which Way to Peace: Love over violence. Violence is action that causes harm to the life or dignity of another. Institutional Violence-result from unjust social structures: Racism and poverty. Spiral of Violence, one act of violence leads to another (revenge). • Conflict is root, disagreements between people or groups or goals. Basic Injustice. Violent Response. Violent Counterresponse. Escalating Violence. More Injustice. • Catechism #2269: Economics that cause starvation is murderous violence. • Youth violence. Broken relationships. Abused or neglected children 53% more likely to commit crimes when they are teenagers. Culture of violence. COL Grossman: “you have to be taught to kill”.
Final Exam Study Guide • Militarism use of military power to resolve conflict. The arms race, deterrence, most powerful is secure, leading to countries having arms build-ups. More violence. Less money for poor and vulnerable. • Nuclear threat and Nuclear proliferation. India and Pakistan. North Korea and Iran. Hope for a Violent world. • Following Jesus to Peace. Peace requires justice for all; the Harmony that results when people resolve conflicts by working in love for the good of all.
Final Exam Study Guide • Pacifism and the “Just War Theory”: Augustine and Thomas Aquinas. Conditions for just-war. Balance of avoiding violence and protecting innocents. Criteria: Just cause. Competent Authority. Comparative Justice. Right Intention. Last Resort. Probability of Success. Proportionality. Discrimination between combatants and non-combatants. • Pacifism Conscientious Objection. Conscientious Objector-status under US Law. Non-violent Resistance. Handout: We Continue Our Christian Pacifist Stand by Dorothy Day.