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Autonomic Nervous System. I. Comparison between somatic and autonomic nervous system. A. Effectors differ 1. somatic system 2. ans B. Number of neurons between CNS and effector 1. somatic 2. ans C. Location of nerve cell bodies 1. somatic 2. ans

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i comparison between somatic and autonomic nervous system
I. Comparison between somatic and autonomic nervous system
  • A. Effectors differ
  • 1. somatic system
  • 2. ans
  • B. Number of neurons between CNS and effector
  • 1. somatic
  • 2. ans
  • C. Location of nerve cell bodies
  • 1. somatic
  • 2. ans
  • D. Ganglia present
  • 1. somatic
  • 2. ans
slide3

E. Nature of response

  • 1. Somatic
  • 2. Ans
  • F. Presence of myelin
  • 1. somatic
  • 2. ans
  • G. Transmitter substance
  • 1. somatic is acetycholine
  • 2. ans:acetycholine from preganglionic fiber, either acetycholine or norepinephrine from postganglionic fiber
ii structure of the ans sympathetic division
II. Structure of the ANS-Sympathetic Division
  • A. Location of preganglionic nerve cell bodies
  • B. Two ganglia in system
  • 1. sympathetic chain or paravertebral ganglia
  • 2. collateral ganglia
  • C. Relative length of fibers
d outflow from cns
D. Outflow from CNS
  • 1. Gray ramus communicans
  • 2. sympathetic nerves to thoracic organs
  • 3. splanchnic nerves
  • 4. special case of the adrenal medulla
iii structure of the parasympathetic division
III. Structure of the parasympathetic division
  • A. Location of the preganganglionic nerve cell bodies
  • B. Craniosacral division
  • C. Lengths of fibers
  • D. Location of ganglia
  • E. Terminal or intramural ganglia
  • F. Very little divergence in the parasympathetic division when compared to the sympathetic
iv physiology of ans
IV. Physiology of ANS
  • A. Transmitter substances
  • 1. All presynaptic fibers-acetycholine
  • 2. postsynaptic fibers of para=acetycholine
  • 3. postsynaptic of sym=most are adrenergic but a few are cholinergic to sweat glands
b receptor sites in the ans
B. Receptor sites in the ANS
  • 1. Cholinergic receptors
  • a. Bind acetycholine
  • b. Two categories-nicotinic and muscarinic
  • c. Nicotinic sites all postganglionic membranes and skeletal muscle-possess an excitatory affect
  • d. Muscarinic sites- membranes of effectors responding to acetycholine released from postganglionic fibers of ANS-response to binding of acetycholineto these receptors may be inhibitory or excitatory
  • e. Effects relatively short-lived because it is destroyed by cholinesterase
2 adrenergic receptor sites
2. Adrenergic receptor sites
  • a. Located on membranes of effectors innervated by sympathetic division
  • b. Respond to epinephrine or norepinephrine
  • c. May be excitatory or inhibitory depending on effector
  • d. These receptors can respond to ANS or to adrenalin released from the adrenal medulla
  • e. Sympathetic stimulations tend to be more widespread
  • f. Sympathetic reactions tend to be longer lasting because transmitter substance is not directly broken down but diffuses away
v generalizations about the ans
V. Generalizations about the ANS
  • A. Many organs possess dual innervation
  • 1. two divisions will have opposing effects
  • 2. if one is stimulatory, other is inhibitory
  • 3. parasympathetic is rest and recovery
  • 4. sympathetic produces the effects of “fight or flight”
b sympathetic division produces longer lasting and more widespread effects
B. Sympathetic division produces longer lasting and more widespread effects
  • 1. The adrenergic receptor sites of the sympathetic division can respond to adrenal gland secretions
  • 2. if adrenalin is circulating in the blood stream, disperses to many glands
  • 3. one sympathetic preganglionic fiber synapses with multiple postganglionic fibers travelling to many different effectors
  • 4. the transmitter substances of the sympathetic fibers degrades by diffusing from the receptor site
c blood vessel diameter is regulated solely by the sympathetic division of ans
C. Blood vessel diameter is regulated solely by the sympathetic division of ANS
  • 1. always basal level of sympathetic activity
  • 2. if greater sympathetic activity, generally vasoconstriction
  • 3. less sympathetic activity, vasodilation
  • 4. generalizations don’t always hold when considering blood vessels
  • 5. during fight or flight
  • a. Blood vessels in skeletal muscle dilate
  • b. Blood vessels in digestive system constrict to limit flow