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Chapter 5 Intermediate Sanctions: Between Probation and Incarceration
Intermediate Sanctions • New punishment options developed to fill the gap between traditional probation and traditional jail or prison sentences and to better match the severity of punishment to the seriousness of the crime.
Where and When Intermediate Sanctions Occur • Front-end Programs: Punishment options for initial sentences more restrictive than traditional probation but less restrictive than jail or prison. • Back-end Programs: Sanctions that move offenders from higher levels of control to lower ones for the final phase of their sentence. • Trap-door/Side-door Programs: Emergency release options for special docket offenders, generally used to relieve prison overcrowding. • Net-widening: Increasing the number of offenders sentenced to a higher level of restriction. It results in sentencing offenders to more restrictive sanctions than their offenses and characteristics warrant.
Value Of Intermediate Sanctions • Provide a means for offenders who are not dangerous to repay their victims and their communities • Promote rehabilitation and reintegration of the offender into the community • These things can be done at relatively low cost
Average Annual Cost Of Correctional Options Cost per year Option per participant Boot camp $32,119 Prison 22,650 Jail 20,702 Halfway house 18,074 Intensive Parole Supervision 8,318 Remote-location monitor 4,102 Parole 3,402 Intensive Supervision Probation 3,274 Day reporting 2,781 Community service 2,759 Drug court 2,500 Probation 1,121 House arrest 402
Types Of Intermediate Sanctions • Intensive Supervision Probation (ISP) - Control of offenders in the community under strict conditions, by means of frequent reporting to a probation officer whose caseload is generally limited to 30 offenders. • Probably more than 200,000 people on ISP currently • Protect the community and deter the offender breaking the law • Thought to be more appropriate for high-risk offenders
Types of Intermediate Sanctions - Continued • Drug Courts - A special court empowered to treat, sanction, and reward drug offenders with punishment more restrictive than regular probation but less severe than incarceration. • The nation’s first drug court was developed in Miami by Judge Herbert M. Klein in 1989. • Compared with other courts, drug courts are much less punitive and more healing and restorative in nature. • Three primary goals: • Reduce recidivism • Reduce substance abuse among participants • Rehabilitate participants
Types of Intermediate Sanctions - Continued • Fines -Financial penalties used as a criminal sanction • One of the oldest forms of punishment • Minor misdemeanors, traffic offenses, and ordinance violations • Day fine – a financial penalty scaled both to the defendant’s ability to pay and the seriousness of the crime • Used heavily in Northern and Western Europe • Little research on effectiveness in reducing recidivism
Types Of Intermediate Sanctions - Continued • Community Service - A sentence to serve a specified number of hours working in unpaid positions with nonprofit or tax supported agencies • Began in 1966 in Alameda County, California • Interchangeable with incarceration
Types Of Intermediate Sanctions - Continued • Day Reporting Centers - A community correctional center to which an offender frequently reports to file a daily schedule with a supervision officer, showing how each hour will be spent • First developed in Great Britain in 1972 • Hampden County (Springfield, Massachusetts) Sheriff's Department opened first DRC in U.S. in 1986
Types Of Intermediate Sanctions - Continued Remote-location monitoring - Technologies, including GPS and EM that probation and parole officers use to monitor remotely the location of offenders In 1997, Florida was first state to use GPS to monitor sex offenders Dr. Kathrine Johnson: “GPS technology allows offenders to be monitored as closely, some would say more closely, as they would be in prison, at a substantial cost savings to the public.”
Types Of Intermediate Sanctions - Continued Residential Community Centers - A medium-security correctional setting that resident offenders are permitted to leave regularly—unaccompanied by staff—for work, for educational or vocational programs, or for treatment in the community. Also referred to as halfway houses Estimates place more than 1,000 RCCs involving 30,000 adult residents are in operation
Types Of Intermediate Sanctions - Continued • Boot Camps - A short institutional term of confinement that includes a physical regimen designed to develop self-discipline, respect for authority, responsibility, and a sense of accomplishment. • First adult programs opened in Oklahoma and Georgia • Target young first-time offenders who have been convicted of nonviolent crimes • Use of correctional boot camps is on the decline
Community Corrections • A philosophy of correctional treatment that embraces • decentralization of authority from state to local levels • citizen participation in program planning, design, implementation, and evaluation • redefinition of the population of offenders for whom incarceration is most appropriate • emphasis on rehabilitation through community programs