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Protein Synthesis
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Protein Synthesis

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  1. Protein Synthesis

  2. Review • Purpose of DNA Replication • Copy DNA exactly to put into a new cell

  3. Protein Synthesis • Using the DNA code to make proteins • Each gene gives you a protein with a function

  4. Importance of Proteins • Every chemical reaction and structural component in your body • Materials that make up structure of cells • Enzymes • Communication between cells • Hormones

  5. Gene • A section of DNA that codes for a protein • Example: • Gene: DNA sequence for hitch-hiker’s thumb (instructions) • Protein: builds your thumb cells so that they bend back (physical outcome)

  6. 2 sections of DNA • Exons:genes that code for a protein (1%) • Introns: Sequences of DNA that do not code for a protein (extra DNA) (99%)

  7. RNA • Another nucleic acid used in Transcription and translation

  8. DNA vs. RNA DNA RNA Ribose AUCG 1 Very small (1000 bp) Transcription/Translation/Other • Deoxyribose • ATCG • 2 • Very large (3 billion bp) • Genetic code

  9. Types of RNA • mRNA: messenger RNA. Carries message of DNA from Nucleus to ribosome • tRNA: transfer RNA. Transfers amino acids from cytoplasm to ribosome to create protein

  10. Transcription • Creating a copy of the DNA to travel to the ribosome to make proteins • DNA can’t leave nucleus so it has to copy the gene it wants

  11. Transcription • DNA mRNA (messenger RNA) complimentary bases line up along the DNA • mRNA travels to ribosome

  12. Enzyme • RNA polymerase builds mRNA

  13. One Change • Thymine doesn’t exist outside of the nucleus so Uracil matches with Adenine instead. So instead of A=T we get A=U. • Transcribe the following gene: ATGCAATGCGATG

  14. Answer • UACGUUACGCUAC

  15. Translation • translating the code of mRNA into a chain of amino acids (protein) • mRNA feeds through ribosome • tRNA brings the correct amino acid to the ribosome • another tRNA brings the next amino acid and connects it to the first

  16. Translation • Keeps going until we have a chain of about 100 amino acids (protein) • When it hits a stop codon the protein breaks off and goes to be used in the cell

  17. Translation • Codon: A triplet of bases on the mRNA • Anticodon: Found on the tRNA, complimentary triplet to mRNA (helps line up the tRNA and the mRNA)

  18. Practice • Divide the following into codons: AUGCCUGGAUGAUGA • Use the chart given to find the correct amino acids to match your codons