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Genetic Traits. Genotype: The types of the genes of an organism Phenotype: The observable characteristics of an organism Gametes: Haploid sex cells created for sexual reproduction Zygote : Diploid cell created by the fusion of sperm and egg. Genetic Traits and Vocab.

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genetic traits
Genetic Traits
  • Genotype: The types of the genes of an organism
  • Phenotype: The observable characteristics of an organism
  • Gametes:Haploid sex cells created for sexual reproduction
  • Zygote: Diploid cell created by the fusion of sperm and egg
genetic traits and vocab
Genetic Traits and Vocab
  • Dominant Gene:A gene that can be expressed in the homozygous (2 copies) or heterozygous condition (1 copy of each).
  • Recessive Gene:A gene that is only expressed in the homozygous (two copies) condition. This gene can be masked by the dominant gene.
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Allele: Version of a gene (may be dominant or recessive)
  • Homozygous: The state of having two identical alleles of a particular gene (eg AA, aa).
  • Hybrid/Heterozygous: The state of having two different alleles of a particular gene (egAa)
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Mendelian Genetics:

Gregor Johann Mendel (1822-1884)

  • Augustinian monk, Czech Republic.
  • Foundation of modern genetics.
  • Studied segregation of traits in the garden pea (Pisum sativum) beginning in 1854.
  • Published his theory of inheritance in 1865.
  • Mendel was “rediscovered” in 1902.
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Some basic terminology:

Generations:

P = parental generation

F1 = 1st filial generation, progeny (offspring) of the P generation

F2 = 2nd filial generation, progeny of the F1 generation (F3 and so on)

Crosses:

Monohybrid cross = cross of two different true-breeding strains (homozygotes) that differ in a single trait.

*Genetics etiquette - female conventionally is written first

Simple Dominance Examples:

hand and arm crossing
Hand and Arm Crossing
  • Left hand clasped over right is dominant
  • Right arm folded over left is dominant
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PTC
  • People who have the ability to taste PTC are dominant to people who cannot
  • What is the benefit for having certain taste?
    • About 40 percent of people cannot taste/smell cyanide.