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Application Timing for Maximum Efficacy of Insecticides to Control European and Common Crane Fly Larvae in the Pacific PowerPoint Presentation
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Application Timing for Maximum Efficacy of Insecticides to Control European and Common Crane Fly Larvae in the Pacific Northwest. G.K. Stahnke, A.L. Antonelli, E.D. Miltner, M. J. Johns, P.R. Corpuz and N.P. Aviles. T. Oleracea L. female Found in WA in 1998 and

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slide1

Application Timing for Maximum Efficacy of

Insecticides to Control European and Common

Crane Fly Larvae in the Pacific Northwest

G.K. Stahnke, A.L. Antonelli, E.D. Miltner, M. J. Johns,

P.R. Corpuz and N.P. Aviles

slide2

T. Oleracea L. female

Found in WA in 1998 and

in Quebec, Canada in 2004

T. Paludosa Meigen female

Found in WA in 1967 and

moved south to northern

California by 1999

slide3

v

BC

Ontario

v

Quebec

v

v

WA

v

Quebec City

v

v

v

v

Toronto

v

v

v

OR

v

v

v

v

v

v

v

Slide of locations

CA

VA

AL

TX

2005 Crane Fly Larval Locations in United States and Canada

slide4

Common

Crane Fly

Oviposition

Common

Crane Fly

Oviposition

slide6

Crane Fly Larvae Reduction Trials

Timing for Applications:

  • Oviposition for European Crane Fly (ECF) egg to
  • 1st instar; CCF – 2nd to 3rd instar (September 15)
  • ECF – 1st instar to 2nd instar; CCF- egg to 1st instar
  • (November 15)
  • ECF – Late 3rd instar; CCF- 4th instar, adult to egg lay
  • (February to March 15)

Applications made with CO2 sprayer with 8003 flat fan nozzles.

207 KPa and a spray volume of 0.12 L m-2.

slide7

Table 1. Oviposition timing for control of larval crane

flies on colonial bentgrass (25 Sept. 2001)

Rate Avg. crane fly

Treatment Formulation kg ai ha –1 larvae m -2

Untreated 280.5 a

Trichlorfon 6.2G 9.11 132.0 ab

Imidacloprid 0.2G 0.28 78.3 b

Thiamethoxam 25WG 0.30 78.3 b

Cyfluthrin 0.1G 0.15 45.4 b

Imidacloprid 0.2 0.37 33.0 b

LSD 179.0

† Means within columns followed by the same letter are not significantly different according to Fisher’s projected LSD (P = 0.05).

slide8

Table 2. Fall crane fly larval control on Kentucky

bluegrass-fine fescue (15 Nov. 2000)

Rate Avg. crane fly

Treatment Formulation kg ai ha –1 larvae m -2

Beauveria bassiana JW1 7.2FL 7.42x1010†1154.6 a‡

Imidacloprid 0.2G 0.28 816.7 ab

Untreated 808.1 b

Beauveria bassiana JW1§ 7.2FL 7.42x1010† 762.9 bc

Thiamethoxam 25WG 0.30 713.4 bcd

Cyfluthrin 0.1G 0.15 705.9 bcd

LSD 340.0

† Rate is expressed as spores ha-1 (2.3 x 107 spores ml-1 of product)

‡ Means within columns followed by the same letter are not significantly different according to Fisher’s projected LSD (P = 0.05).

§ 2 apps. 10 days apart

slide9

Table 2. Fall crane fly larval control on Kentucky

bluegrass-fine fescue (15 Nov. 2000) (cont’d. 1)

Rate Avg. crane fly

Treatment Formulation kg ai ha –1 larvae m -2

Imidacloprid 0.2G 0.37 697.3 bcd

Beauveria bassiana JW1§ 7.2FL 3.71x1010† 717.7 bcde

Imidacloprid 0.5G 0.34 614.4 bcde

Trichlorfon 1.5G 1.69 557.4 bcdef

Pyriproxyfen 11.2EC 0.20 535.9 bcdef

Cyfluthrin 0.1G 0.10 524.0 bcdef

Imidacloprid 0.5G 0.44 458.4 cdef

LSD 340.0

† Rate is expressed as spores ha-1 (2.3 x 107 spores ml-1 of product)

slide10

Table 2. Fall crane fly larval control on Kentucky

bluegrass-fine fescue (15 Nov. 2000) (cont’d. 2)

Rate Avg. crane fly

Treatment Formulation kg ai ha –1 larvae m -2

Trichlorfon 6.2G 6.08 404.6 def

Lambda-cyhalothrin 10WP 0.13 326.0 efg

Trichlorfon 6.2G 9.11 313.1 efg

Bifenthrin (Talstar FL) 7.9FL 0.25 280.8 efg

Acephate (97) 97WG 4.13 231.3 fg

Bifenthrin (Talstar PL) 0.2 0.45 40.9 g

Chlorpyrifos (Dursban DTI) 4EC 1.12 21.5 g

LSD 340.0

slide11

Table 3. Fall crane fly larval control on Kentucky bluegrass-fine fescue (20 Nov. 2001)

Rate Avg. crane fly

Treatment Formulation kg ai ha –1 larvae m -2

Imidacloprid 0.5G 0.44 1006.4 a†

Halofenozide 22.3FL 1.78 1002.3 a

Methoprene 20EC 0.64 886.8 ab

Fluvalinate 0.2G 0.18 874.5 ab

Halofenozide 1.5G 2.21 800.2 abc

Cyfluthrin 0.75EW 0.14 791.9 abc

Imidacloprid 0.5G 0.34 746.7 abc

Halofenozide 1.5G 1.69 705.3 abc

LSD 359.4

† Means within columns followed by the same letter are not significantly different according to Fisher’s projected LSD (P = 0.05).

slide12

Table 3. Fall crane fly larval control on Kentucky bluegrass-fine fescue (20 Nov. 2001) (cont’d.)

Rate Avg. crane fly

Treatment Formulation kg ai ha –1 larvae m -2

Cyfluthrin 0.1G 0.15 635.2 bc

Acephate (97) 97WG 4.13 618.7 bc

Thiamethoxam 25WG 0.30 610.4 bc

Trichlorfon 6.2G 9.11 606.3 bc

Untreated 594.0 bc

Lambda-cyhalothrin 10WP 0.13 507.3 c

Bifenthrin (Talstar FL) 0.2FL 0.45 82.5 d

Bifenthrin (Talstar PL) 0.2G 0.45 41.2 d

Chlorpyrifos (Dursban DTI) 4EC 1.12 8.3 d

LSD 359.4

slide13

Table 4. Spring crane fly larval control on Kentucky bluegrass-fine fescue (15 Jan. 2004)

Rate Avg. crane fly

Treatment Formulation kg ai ha –1 larvae m -2

Untreated 107.6 a†

Carbaryl (Sevin SL) 43FL 9.0 32.3 b

Bifenthrin(Talstar EZ) 0.2G 0.45 20.4 b

Bifenthrin (One) 7.9GL 0.22 20.4 b

Bifenthrin (One) 7.9FL 0.11 19.4 b

Bifenthrin (Talstar EZ) 0.2G 0.22 16.1 b

Chlorpyrifos (Dursban DTI) 4EC 1.12 11.8 b

Bifenthrin (Onyx) 23.3EC 0.11 4.3 b

Bifenthrin(Talstar PL) 0.2G 0.45 4.3 b

Bifenthrin (Onyx) 23.3EC 0.22 4.3 b

Bifenthrin (Talstar PL) 0.2G 0.22 0.0 b

LSD 33.1

† Means within columns followed by the same letter are not significantly different according to Fisher’s projected LSD (P = 0.05).

slide14

Table 5. Spring crane fly larval control colonial bentgrass- annual bluegrass-perennial ryegrass (18Feb. 2002)

Rate Avg. crane fly

Treatment Formulation kg ai ha –1 larvae m -2

Untreated 268.1 a†

Acephate 97 WG 4.13 226.8 ab

Carbaryl (Sevin SL) 43 SL 4.5 107.3 bc

Carbaryl (Sevin SL) 43 SL 9.0 41.2 c

Bifenthrin (Talstar PL) 0.2 G 0.45 24.8 c

Chlorpyrifos (Dursban DTI) 4 EC 1.12 20.7 c

LSD 120.5

† Means within columns followed by the same letter are not significantly different according to Fisher’s projected LSD (P = 0.05).

slide15

Table 6. Spring crane fly larval control colonial bentgrass- annual bluegrass-perennial ryegrass (5 Mar. 2002)

Rate Avg. crane fly

Treatment Formulation kg ai ha –1 larvae m -2

Untreated 173.2 a†

Bifenthrin (Talstar EZ) 0.2 G 0.45 24.8 b

LSD 125.9

† Means within columns followed by the same letter are not significantly different according to Fisher’s projected LSD (P = 0.05).

slide16

Table 7. Spring crane fly larval control on Kentucky bluegrass-fine fescue (15 Mar. 2001)

Rate Avg. crane fly

Treatment Formulation kg ai ha –1 larvae m –2

Untreated 123.7 a†

Lambda-Cyhalothrin (Scimitar) 10 WP 0.13 78.6

Bifenthrin (Talstar PL) 0.2 G 0.45 40.9 b

LSD 51.2

† Means within columns followed by the same letter are not significantly different according to Fisher’s projected LSD (P = 0.05).

slide17

Summary

  • At oviposition, imidacloprid (0.28 and0.37 kg ai ha-1),
  • cyfluthrin and thiamethoxam, significantly reduced larval
  • numbers by 72, 88,84 and 72%, respectively.
  • Late fall applications (Nov.) of imidacloprid (0.44kg at ha-1),
  • trichlorfon, lambda-cyhalothrin, bifenthrin, chlorpyrifos
  • and acephate provided significant larval reduction.
  • Early spring applications (Jan.-Feb) of bifenthrin (both
  • granular and liquid forms) and carbaryl (9.0 kg ai ha-1),
  • reduced larvae by 93 to 85%, respectively.
  • Late spring applications of bifenthrin (early March) reduced
  • larval numbers by 86%, while mid-March applications only
  • reduced larval numbers by 67%.
slide18

Conclusions

For unthrifty and newly established turfgrass areas, which

are more susceptible to ECF and CCF damage, an application

of imidacloprid would be effective in reducing larval

populations in September at oviposition.

Healthy, established turfgrass can be monitored in late fall or

early spring for larval numbers above the threshold of 269 m-2,

with an application of bifenthrin or the higher rate of carbaryl

applied to reduce larval populations to limit damage to the

turfgrass.