Marek Frankowicz Student Learning Outcomes 1Whatare LO? Why LO?
Definition of an expert (O. Wilde): „Ordinary man, away from home, giving advice” Some experts propose answers for which there are no questions … or teach & preach useless things I would like to be useful; please help me Initialremark
Globalization Change From Stone Age to Conceptual Age European Higher Education Area, TUNING, TEMPUS etc. Contexts
No man is an island,Entire of itself.Each is a piece of the continent,A part of the main…John Donne
Goodworkingdefinition (ECTS Users’ Guide): Learning outcomesarestatements of what a learnerisexpected to know, understand and/or be able to demonstrateaftercompletion of a process of learning. • Learning outcomesfocus on whatthelearnerhasachievedratherthantheintentions of theteacher. • Learning outcomesfocus on whatthelearnercandemonstrateattheend of learning activity Thereare many Definitions of LO
Aims – broad purposes or goals e.g. this course aims to…They are generallyaspirational at programme level but are more specific and achievable at the level of modules/courses. Objectives – the specific steps that take us from where we are now towardsour goals. They can be formulated as teaching objectives (what the teacherdoes to promote students’ learning), as curriculum objectives (how thecurriculum supports the achievement of the intended learning) and asobjectives for students’ learning (what the students do to learn). Intended learning outcomes – what students will know and be able to do as aresult of engaging in the learning process. They represent statements ofachievement expressed from the learners’ perspective…at the end of thecourse learners will know … and be able to do….Course/module learningoutcomes must be achievable and measurable. They should connect directlyto the assessment criteria that are used to judge achievement. Aims, objectives and allthat jazz…
A focus on student learning Clarity Overal vision and progression Realism Clear connection between goals, teaching and assessment The process of educational development in the academy Better quality assurance Whywritelo?
Ability to Learn Ability to Adapt Along with „Lifelong Learning” (LLL) concept we shall also promote „Lifelong Mobility” (LLM) (EURASHE WG „Mobility & International Openness”) Prerequisites for successful LLL and LLM: Clear and precise information on educational offer Efficient recognition mechanisms (based on evidence) Learning Outcomes! TwoKeyCompetences for the 21st Century
„Employability is the Art of Converting Learning Outcomes into Earning Incomes” (M.F.) Short version: From Learning to Earning Lo and employability
Bloom’s Taxonomy SOLO (Structure of Observed Learning Outcomes) Taxonomy Fink’s Taxonomy …. Niemierko Taxonomy …. Bloom’s Taxonomy: Cognitive Domain Affective Domain Psychomotor Domain Taxonomy of lotaxonomies
Bloom’sTaxonomy: CognitiveDomain Bloom • Knowledge • Comprehension • Application • Analysis • Synthesis • Evaluation Anderson et al. • Remember • Understand • Apply • Analyse • Evaluate • Create
Receiving Responding Valuing Organisation & Conceptualisation Characterisation by Value Bloom’sTaxonomy: AffectiveDomain
Bloom’sTaxonomy: PsychomotorDomain Bloom • Imitation • Manipulation • Precision • Articulation • Naturalisation Dave, Ferris & Aziz • Perception/Observing • GuidedResponse/ Imitation • Mechanism • ComplexResponse • Adaptation • Origination
Examples: Knowledge → define, describe, list Comprehension → classify, explain, illustrate Application → apply, prepare, use Analysis → analyse, deduce, compare Synthesis → design, explain, formulate Evaluation → assess, criticise, justify Writinglo: action words
List the criteria to be taken into account when caring for a patient with tuberculosis Classify reactions as exothermic and endothermic Relate energy changes to bond breaking and formation Compare classical and quantum harmonic oscillator Organise a patient education programme Discuss the role of Internet in physics teaching Design a poster presentation Examine a patient Use MS Office effectively and skilfully Display a willingness to communicate well with patients Resolve conflicting issues between personal beliefs and ethical considerations Examples of lo
From Wikipedia: • During the Gupta period in India (AD 300–600), craftmen's associations, which may have had archaic antecedents, were known as shreni. • Greek organizations in Ptolemaic Egypt were called koinon, starting from their 3rd century BC origins of Romancollegia, spread with the extension of the Empire. • The Chinese hanghui probably existed already during the Han Dynasty (206 BC - AD 220):, but certainly they were present in the Sui Dynasty (589 - 618 AD).
Describe what the learner can accomplish as a result of completing a program They should be aligned with the institution’s mission They should focus on broad conceptual knowledge and higher order skills They represent the minimum requirements to complete a program Loatthe program level
Describe what the learner can accomplish as a result of completing a module They should be aligned with the program LO They represent the minimum requirements to complete a module Loatthe module level
Determine need and potential Define the profile and the key competences Formulate programme LO Decide whether modularise or not Identify competences and LO for each module/course unit Determine the approaches to teaching, learning and assessment Check whether the key generic and subject specific competences are covered Describe the programme and the course units Check balance and feasibility Implement, monitor and improve Design of study program – tuningapproach
WRITE Step 1. Formulate: What? Subject-related content in LO Step 2. Formulate: How? The format of LO (active verbs etc.) REVISE Step 3. Focusdistinguish between LO and other descriptions Step 4. Specifymake LO observable and clear Step 5. Refinedistinguish between learning activities and results Step 6. Clarifyvague outcomes Step 7. Limitthe number of LO CHECK Step 8. Adjustcheck that LO can be assessed Step 9. Estimate student learning time Step 10. Calibratecheck the module in relation to other modules Ten stepstowardslo (NSHU 2006)
Program aims and objectives Intended learning outcomes Curriculum Evaluation of students Achieved learning outcomes Fromwishfulthinking to finalresults