Self, Identity, Self-esteem. Self- totality of you Physical body but also your identity, others’ perceptions, etc. Self constructed out of meaning Self-concept = individual’s beliefs about himself or herself; ideas about yourself Self-esteem = how you evaluate yourself Identity = who you are.
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Self, Identity, Self-esteem • Self- totality of you • Physical body but also your identity, others’ perceptions, etc. • Self constructed out of meaning • Self-concept = individual’s beliefs about himself or herself; ideas about yourself • Self-esteem = how you evaluate yourself • Identity = who you are
Self-Concept • How do people learn about themselves? • Infancy – learns boundaries of own body • 2nd year of life – learn how to do things, develop idea of mastery • Smile when learn something • Able to identify self as child, gender • 3- 5 years of age • Emphasize skills and abilities • Think about self as physical body
Self-concept • Tends to be very broad • Only some pieces salient at any one time • Boy/girl groups studies
Self-knowledge motives • Gain accurate info. about self • Gain confirmation of what you already believe about self • Learn positive, favorable things about self People tend to have all 3 motives Which is strongest??
Typical rankings of motives based on empirical findings • Self-enhancement • Consistency • Accurate info. – distant third Sober cognitive response will recognize dubious nature of many flattering pieces of info. Emotionally potent info. rules
Self-concept – development cont’ • 6 to 11: sense of competency & control continue to increase • See competencies in more complex terms • Social comparisons important • Idea that some of self as being hidden from view emerges • Teen age years: self-consciousness increases. Reflects ability to imagine how one appears to others
Measurement issues • Think about how one might measure self-concept or self-esteem. What potential problems do you see?
Measurement issues cont. Problems: • Self-presentational concerns • Biases in self-perceptions: accuracy?? • Implicit vs. explicit self views (awareness vs. unawareness)
Greenwald & Farnham Implicit Association Test – designed to address that last issue • Measures implicit self-esteem • Actual task somewhat complicated to describe—try it online at https://implicit.harvard.edu/implicit/demo/index.jsp
IAT/Greenwald cont’ • Indirect measure does not rely on introspection • Not susceptible to self-presentational concerns
Asendorpf et al. • IAT applied to shyness • Want to look at differences in the way that people report shyness and implicit measures of shyness • Shy people may lack self-insight? • Unwillingness to report being shy?
Method • 139 heterosexual young adults • Videotaped in shyness-inducing social situation • Took personality questionnaire • Took shyness IAT
Results • Significant correlations between self-ratings and IAT shyness ratings