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Numerical Simulation of Multi-scale Transport Processes and Reactions in PEM Fuel Cells Using Two-Phase Models. Munir Ahmed Khan Division of Heat Transfer Dept. of Energy Sciences LTH. Outline. Introduction Brief History of Development Modeling Approach Numerical Modeling Results

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slide1

Numerical Simulation of Multi-scale Transport Processes and Reactions in PEM Fuel CellsUsing Two-Phase Models

Munir Ahmed Khan

Division of Heat Transfer

Dept. of Energy Sciences

LTH

outline
Outline
  • Introduction
  • Brief History of Development
  • Modeling Approach
  • Numerical Modeling
  • Results
  • Conclusion
pemfc schematic
PEMFC Schematic

(Jacobson, 2004)

history of pemfc development
History of PEMFC Development
  • 1839 (Fuel Cell Principle)
  • 1965 (NASA)
  • 1968 (Nafion)
  • 1969 (Biosatellite Missions)
  • 1970 – 1989 (Abeyance)
  • 1990 – Present (Ballard Power and Los Alamos Labs)
presented modeling
Presented Modeling
  • Interdigitated Flow Field
  • Cathode Side Only
  • 2-Phase
    • 2 Phase Flow
    • 2 Phase Temperature
    • 2 Phase Current
  • Agglomerate Catalyst Modeling
computational domain
Computational Domain

(Larminie J, 2003)

flow fields
Flow Fields

(www.me.udel.edu)

idealized catalyst layer

Pt Particle

Gas Pores

Carbon Particle

Nafion

Agglomerate

Idealized Catalyst Layer

Electrolyte

Bulk

transport phenomena

H+

H+

H2O

H2O

O2

O2

O2

e-

e-

e-

O2

O2

Transport Phenomena
  • Multicomponent Diffusion
  • Oxygen Dissolution
  • Dissolved Oxygen Diffusion
  • Electron Transport
  • Proton Migration

O2

oxygen reduction reactions
Oxygen Reduction Reactions
  • Reaction Steps
  • Rate of Reaction
boundary conditions
Boundary Conditions
  • Inlet

Gas Concentration

Fluid Temperature

Pressure

Water Saturation

2

2. Catalyst/Membrane Interface

Nominal Cathode Overpotential (NCO)

1

3. Current Collector

Solid Phase Potential

Solid Phase Temperature

3

velocity and pressure fields
Velocity and Pressure Fields

Velocity Distribution (m/s)

Pressure Field (N/m2)

conclusion
Conclusion
  • Effect of Liquid Water
    • More prominent at higher current density
  • Membrane Phase Conductivity
    • Highly dependant on water activity
  • Losses
    • Higher losses are observed at higher current density
  • Mass Limitation Effects
    • Adequately captured by agglomerate model
  • Power
    • Maximum power is observed at 0.55 V
thanks to all
THANKS TO ALL

& Special Thanks to

Bengt Sundén

Jinliang Yuan

HEC Pakistan

Swedish Research Council