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PSYCHOLOGY. Chapter 8 Thinking and Language. Thinking. Cognitive Psychology the study of these mental activities concept formation, problem solving decision making and judgement formation study of both logical and illogical thinking. Thinking. Concept

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psychology
PSYCHOLOGY

Chapter 8

Thinking and Language

thinking
Thinking
  • Cognitive Psychology
    • the study of these mental activities
      • concept formation, problem solving
      • decision making and judgement formation
    • study of both logical and illogical thinking
thinking3
Thinking
  • Concept
    • mental grouping of similar objects, events, or people
      • address
        • country, city, street,

house

        • zip codes
concept formation
Concept Formation

Write down on your paper every thing that you see.

slide5

In the picture was there:

Yes

No

An automobile?

A man?

A woman?

A child?

An animal?

A whip?

A sword?

A man’s hat?

A ball?

A fish?

thinking6
Thinking
  • Prototype
    • the best example of a category
    • matching new items to the prototype provides a quick and easy method for including items in a category.

Or this?

thinking problem solving
Thinking (Problem Solving)
  • Algorithm
    • methodical, logical rule or procedure that guarantees solving a particular problem
    • contrasts with the usually speedier – but also more error-prone use of heuristics
thinking problem solving8
Thinking (Problem Solving)
  • Heuristic
    • rule-of-thumb strategy that often allows us to make judgements and solve problems efficiently
    • usually speedier than algorithms
    • more error-prone than algorithms
    • sometimes we’re unaware of using heuristics
thinking problem solving9
Thinking (Problem Solving)

Unscramble

S P L O Y O C H Y G

  • Algorithm
    • all 907,208 combinations
  • Heuristic
    • throw out all YY combinations
heuristics
Heuristics
  • Representativeness Heuristic
    • rule of thumb for judging the likelihood of things in terms of how well they seem to represent, or match, particular prototypes
    • may lead one to ignore other relevant information
representativeness heuristics
Representativeness Heuristics

A stranger tells you about a person who is short, slim, and likes to read poetry, and then asks you to guess whether this person is more likely to be a professor of classics at an Ivy League university or a truck driver.

Which would be the better guess?

heuristics12
Heuristics
  • Availability Heuristic
    • estimating the likelihood of events based on their availability in memory
    • if instances come readily to mind (perhaps because of their vividness), we presume such events are common
    • Example: airplane crash
availability heuristics
Availability Heuristics

Does the letter K appear more often

as the first letter or third letter in

English usage?

know, kingdom, and kin

make, likely, asked, acknowledged

thinking problem solving14
Thinking (Problem Solving)

Do you see a pattern?

4 9 2

3 5 7

8 1 6

They all add up to 15

thinking problem solving15
Thinking (Problem Solving)
  • Insight
    • sudden and often novel realization of the solution to a problem
    • contrasts strategy-based solutions

Wolfgang Kohler’s experiment on insight by a chimpanzee

obstacles to problem solving
Obstacles to Problem Solving
  • Confirmation Bias
    • tendency to search for information that confirms one’s preconceptions
confirmation bias
Confirmation Bias

USC, ASU, PENN STATE, PRINCETON, UCSB, UCR, CSULB, CAL POLY SLO, CSUF, AZUSA PACIFIC, UCSD, UCI, CAL POLY POMONA, NAU, PALOMAR JC, SADDLEBACK JC, IRVINE VALLEY JC, BETHANY, POINT LOMA COLLEGE , EMORY COLLEGE, Mt. SJ JC

obstacles to problem solving18
Obstacles to Problem Solving
  • Belief Bias
    • the tendency for one’s preexisting beliefs to distort logical reasoning
    • sometimes by making invalid conclusions seem valid, or valid conclusions seem invalid
obstacles to problem solving19
Obstacles to Problem Solving
  • Belief Perseverance
    • clinging to one’s initial conceptions after the basis on which they were formed has been discredited
obstacles to problem solving20
Obstacles to Problem Solving
  • Overconfidence
    • tendency to be more confident than correct
    • tendency to overestimate the accuracy of one’s beliefs and judgements
obstacles to problem solving21
Obstacles to Problem Solving
  • Mental Set
    • tendency to approach a problem in a particular way - a way that has been successful in the past but may or may not be helpful in solving a new problem
obstacles to problem solving22
Obstacles to Problem Solving
  • Fixation
    • inability to see a problem from a new perspective

APPSYCH NOTES

the matchstick problem
The Matchstick Problem
  • How would you arrange six matches to form four equilateral triangles?
the matchstick problem24
The Matchstick Problem

Solution to the matchstick problem

the three jugs problem
The Three-Jugs Problem

Using jugs A, B, and C

with the capacities

shown, how would

you measure out the

volumes indicated?

the three jugs problem26
The Three-Jugs Problem

Given jugs of these sizes:

Measure out

this much water:

Problem

A

B

C

1

21

127

3

100

2

14

46

5

22

3

18

43

10

5

4

7

42

6

23

5

20

57

4

29

6

23

49

3

20

7

15

39

3

18

the three jugs problem27
The Three-Jugs Problem

Solution

a) All seven problems can be solved by the equation shown in (a): B-A-2C= desired volume.

b) But simpler solutions exist for problems 6 and 7, such as A-C for problem 6.

obstacles to problem solving28
Obstacles to Problem Solving
  • Functional Fixedness
    • tendency to think of things only in terms of their usual functions
the candle mounting problem
The Candle-Mounting Problem

Using these materials, how would you mount the candle on a bulletin board?

the candle mounting problem30
The Candle-Mounting Problem

Solving this problem requires recognizing that a box need not always serve as a container

fun with problem solving
Fun with Problem Solving

What number is next? 10, 4, 3, 11, 15,…

a. 14 b. 1 c. 17 d. 12

The maker doesn’t want it, the buyer doesn’t

use it, and the user doesn’t see it. What is it?

What is so unusual about the sentence below?

“Jackdaws love my big sphinx of quartz.”

Something extraordinarily unusual happened

on May 6, 1978 at 12:34 pm. What was it?

What occurs once in every minute, twice in

every moment, yet never in a thousand years?

Can you translate the following?

YYURYYUBICURYY4ME

fun with problem solving32
Fun with Problem Solving

You are walking in the desert and find a man

Lying face down with a pack on his back,

dead. How did he die?

A man walks into a bar and asks the bartender for a

glass of water. The bartender reaches under the

bar, pulls out a large pistol, and points it right in the

man’s face. The man says “thank you” and turns

and walks out of the bar. Why did the man say

“thank you”?

A man is a work and wants to go home. However,

he will not go home because a man wearing a mask is waiting there for him. What does the first man do for a living?

slide34

26=L of the A7 = W of the W1001 = A.N.12 = S. of the Z.54 = C in the D (w/ the J)9 = P. in the S.S.88 = P.K.13 = S. on the A.F.18 = H. on a G.C.4 = Q. in a G.3 = B.M. (S.H.T.R.)24 = H. in a D.57 = H.V.11 = P. on a F.T.1000 = W. that a P. is W.29 = D. in F. in a L.Y.

psychology35
PSYCHOLOGY

Chapter 8

Thinking and Language

thinking36
Thinking
  • Incubation – a period of time during which active searching for a problem’s solution is set aside; sometimes necessary for a successful solution of the problem
thinking37
Thinking
  • Brainstorming
  • A group problem-solving technique in which participants generate as many solutions to a problem as possible by building upon others’ ideas and disregarding whether solutions are practical.
slide38

Thinking

  • Framing
    • the way an issue is posed
    • how an issue is framed can significantly affect decisions and judgements
    • Example: What is the best way to market ground beef - As 25% fat or 75% lean?
slide39

The Buddhist Monk ProblemExactly at sunrise one morning, a Buddhist monk set out to climb a tall mountain. The narrow path was not more than a foot or two wide, and it wound around the mountain to a beautiful, glittering temple at the mountain peak.The monk climbed the path at varying rates of speed. He stopped many times along the way to rest and to eat the fruit he carried with him. He reached the temple just before sunset. At the temple, he fasted and meditated for several days. Then he began his journey back along the same path, starting at sunrise and walking, as before, at variable speeds with many stops along the way. However, his average speed going down the hill was greater than his average climbing speed. Prove that there must be a spot along the path that the monk will pass on both trips exactly the same time of day.

slide40

Monk B

The Buddhist Monk ProblemMonk “A”, who starts climbing up the mountain in the morning, and Monk “B”, who starts climbing down at the same time, showing that at some point in time they are both at the same place on the mountain, just as the monk, in the “monk and the mountain” problem is, during his ascent and descent.

Where Monk A and B pass each other

Monk A

slide42

How about this…Solution to the hobbits-and-orcs problem. Each trip indication on the left (trip 1, trip 2, etc.) indicates the number of hobbits and orcs that remain after the trip. The hobbits and orcs in the next row down indicate how many hobbits and orcs there are each time the boat comes back.

slide43

There are numerous cognitive barriers to mastering problem-solving. The primary difficulty for many students is the inability to identify and use concepts and procedures in analogous but novel situations. The lack of transfer of structure between problems is a significant cognitive difficulty, not only for inexperienced problem-solvers but also for experts. Successful transfer rests on the ability to recognize analogies, but even when given an analogy, students often fail to see how to employ it. In order to understand this phenomenon more concretely, consider the following problem:

slide44

The structure of this problem follows the general pattern common to all problems. It has a set of facts (tumor, radiation, tissue) and unknowns (ways to administer radiation), together with relationships between them (radiation destroys tumor and tissue).

A patient has a cancerous tumor. Beams of radiation will destroy the tumor, but in high doses will also destroy healthy tissue surrounding the tumor. How can you use radiation to safely eradicate the tumor?

slide45

A story from a movie just like, but not exactly like, Enchanted…

A fortress surrounded by a moat is connected to land by numerous narrow bridges. An attacking army successfully captures the fortress by sending only a few soldiers across each bridge, converging upon it simultaneously.

slide46

Gick and Holyoak (1983) gave volunteers the story below and then asked them to solve the tumor problem.

A fortress surrounded by a moat is connected to land by numerous narrow bridges. An attacking army successfully captures the fortress by sending only a few soldiers across each bridge, converging upon it simultaneously.

slide47

The story and the problem have exactly the same logical structure, but only a small percentage of subjects were able to solve the tumor problem after being told the story. The solution is to bombard the tumor from different directions with low-intensity radiation so as not to harm healthy tissue. The convergence of the beams at the tumor provides sufficient intensity to destroy it. Only when the subjects were overtly prompted to use the story as an analogy to help them solve the problem were most of them able to solve it. The inability to transfer in the absence of prompting may be one of the greatest hurdles for student and instructor.

language49
Language
  • Human Language
    • our spoken, written, or gestured words and the way we combine them to communicate meaning
  • by putting together sounds and symbols according to specialized rules, we share ideas, information, and feelings with others
language50
Language
  • Phoneme
    • in a spoken language, the smallest distinctive sound unit

ch – a – t

Our English language has some 40 – 50 Phonemes

language51
Language
  • Changes in phonemes produce changes in meaning…
  • Generally consonant phonemes carry more information than do vowel phonemes…

b – e – t or b – i – t or b – a - t

The treth ef thes stetement shed be evedent frem thes bref demenstretien.

language52
Language
  • Morpheme
    • in a language, the smallest unit that carries meaning
    • may be a word or a part of a word (such as a prefix)
morphemes
Morphemes

I and a

Single phoneme morpheme

Single morpheme

Multiple morphemes

bat and bet

cats and

undesirables

language54
Language
  • Semantics
    • the set of rules by which we derive meaning from morphemes, words, and sentences in a given language
    • also, the study of meaning
  • Syntax
    • the rules for combining words into grammatically sensible sentences in a

given language

language55
Language
  • Grammatical Structures
    • Linguist Noam Chomsky (LAD) proposed an innate mental grammar that helps put word together in a meaningful way.

Surface Structure – words spoken or

written “Terry made the coffee”

Deep Structure – underlying meaning

of the sentence “The coffee was made

by Terry”

language56

100

90

80

70

60

50

40

30

20

10

0

Hindi-

speaking

adults

6-8

months

8-10

months

10-12

months

English-

speaking

adults

Infants from English-speaking homes

Language
  • We are all born to recognize speech sounds from all the world’s languages

Percentage able to discriminate

Hindi t’s

language57
Language
  • Babbling Stage - begins at 3-4 months
    • the stage of speech development in which the infant spontaneously utters various sounds at first unrelated to the household language
  • One-Word Stage - from about age 1-2
    • the stage in speech development during which a child speaks mostly in single words
language58
Language
  • Two-Word Stage - begins about age 2
    • the stage in speech development during which a child speaks mostly two-word statements
  • Telegraphic Speech
    • early stage in which the child speaks like a telegram – “go car” – using mostly nouns and verbs and omitting “auxiliary” words
language59

Summary of Language Development

Month

(approximate)

Stage

Babbles many speech sounds.

4

Babbling reveals households

language.

10

12

One-word stage.

24

Two-world, telegraphic speech.

24+

Language develops rapidly into

Complete sentences.

Language
language60

Environment

spoken language

heard

provides

input to

Genes

Brain

Mechanisms for

understanding and

producing language

Behavior

Mastery of

native

language

Language

design

language61

100

90

80

70

60

50

3-7

8-10

11-15

17-39

Age at school

Language
  • New language learning gets harder with age

Percentage

correct on

grammar

test

Native

language62
Language
  • Linguistic (Relativity) Determinism
    • Benjamin Lee Whorf’s hypothesis that language determines the way we think

Hopi Indians had no past tense for

their verbs – they could not readily

think about the past

psychology63
PSYCHOLOGY

Chapter 8

Thinking and Language