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Implementing The Paint Specification in the Performance Standard for Protective Coatings – The Challenge. The North East Coast Joint Branch of IMAREST and RINA Newcastle upon Tyne 12 March 2009. Objective.

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Implementing The Paint Specification in the Performance Standard for Protective Coatings – The Challenge

The North East Coast Joint Branch of IMAREST and RINA

Newcastle upon Tyne

12 March 2009


  • To provide a review of the requirements/challenges posed by the IMO PSPC and highlight some key issues.


rust is a must a poem
Rust is a Must – a poem

…….All the ships upon the sea

Slowly turn to Fe203…….

T.B Watson


surface preparation
Surface preparation



Improvement is needed

the parties involved at present
The Parties Involved at present






Coating supplier


the parties involved
The Parties Involved
  • A paint specification is in many ways a compromise:
    • It has to meet with the yards building procedures, environmental and productivity requirements
    • The shipyard is the customer of the coating manufacturers and they have to be competitive on standards as well as price
    • It has to match the paint suppliers product range.
  • The PSPC is in effect making the compromise redundant


coating performance standard review
Coating Performance Standard Review
  • The Performance Standard for Protective Coatings (PSPC) provides the technical requirements for protective coatings in dedicated sea water ballast tanks of all types of ships of 500 gt and greater and double sided skin spaces on bulk carriers of 150m and greater in length.
  • It will be mandatory and is intended to be included as amendments to SOLAS regs II-1/3-2 and XII/6
  • It is also recommended to be applied where possible to items, not integral to the structure e.g. ladders, platforms – Permanent means of access


tip of the iceberg
Tip of the iceberg
  • A family of regulations
    • PSPC
    • Permanent means of access
    • Cargo tanks
    • Maintenance
  • These will change the current compromise solutions


solas regulation
SOLAS Regulation
  • All vessels now cannot be delivered without a compliant ballast tank coating systems
  • For Common Structural Rule vessels – this now becomes a condition of class!


  • Structural failures
  • Chase for minimum standards
  • Use of high tensile steels
  • Paint as part of the solution – but was it part of the problem?


coating performance standard review1
Coating Performance Standard Review
  • Aims of the PSPC
    • to provide a 15 year life for ballast tank coatings over which it is defined as in being ‘good’ condition.
    • ‘Good’ condition is defined in resolution A.744(18) and is “ condition with only minor rust spotting”
    • Better coating systems with reduced maintenance
    • Improved safety at sea


coating performance standard review2
Coating Performance Standard Review
  • Aims of the PSPC


coating performance standard review3
Coating Performance Standard Review
  • Aims of the PSPC


coating performance standard review4
Coating Performance Standard Review
  • Entry into force
  • The proposals will apply to the aforementioned types of vessels:
    • For which the building contract is placed on or after 1st July 2008, or
    • In the absence of a building contract, the keels of which are laid or which are at a similar stage of construction on or after 1st January 2009, or
    • The delivery of which is on or after 1st July 2012


coating performance standard review5
Coating Performance Standard Review
  • Entry into force
  • However IACS applied the proposals on ratification to tankers ( L > 150m) and bulkers (L > 90m) under the Common Structural Rules (CSR) for contracts signed from December 8th 2006
  • The first new building classed under the above rules were delivered in the second half of 2008


the parties involved1
The Parties Involved



Classification Soc.




Coating supplier


coating performance standard review6
Coating Performance Standard Review
  • Main Elements of the PSPC:
    • Design of a specification and coating system
    • Coating System approval
    • Definition of inspection procedures
    • Production of a Coating Technical File (CTF) which records all aspects of the process
    • Verification of compliance


the paint specification
The Paint Specification
  • The paint specification is at the heart of the PSPC and covers:
    • Primary and Secondary surface preparation standards
    • Steel profile range
    • Cleanliness of surfaces prior to coating
    • Soluble salt limits
    • Steel condition
    • Thickness and number of coats
    • Environmental conditions allowed


the paint specification1
The Paint Specification
  • The paint specification applies to the coating system that has been selected
  • Selection of the coating system takes into account the service conditions and planned maintenance
  • All coatings to be epoxy based or equivalent and consist of multi-coat systems of contrasting colour
  • The top coat to be a light colour


type approval
Type approval
  • All coatings to be pre-qualified by:
    • A method corresponding to a specified test procedure or equivalent ( now Annex 1), cross test with shop primer or…
    • Documented field exposure with a final condition of “GOOD” after 5 years
  • Non Annex 1 test must show equivalent testing procedures and needs.
  • A Statement of Compliance or Type Approval Certificate to be issued by a third party - independent of the coating manufacturer


inspection process
Inspection process
  • The inspection process covers all the processes and defines the standards from:

Shop Primer Application

Block Painting

Post Erection Repairs


the inspection process
The inspection process
  • The inspection processat each stage can be separated into the following simple processes:
    • Cleaning the surface
    • Preparing the surface
    • Coating the surface


coating technical file ctf
Coating technical file (CTF)


A statement of agreement between Owner/yard and paint company for this contract

Paint specification as issued by yard including key criteria and data sheets

A summary or full log of work carried out by yard/coating inspector - one for each tank and Non-conformity/repair summary log for each tank - including verified inspection reports

Statement of conformance

Copy of type approval certificate or statement of compliance

Yard procedures (for inspection and repair) audit certificate from class (includes application ).

Paint Company

Planned maintenance procedures for in service

Ship owner

Maintenance log

Inspection log

Condition log

Class inspection log




DFT Measurement



3 – 6m

Long spacing 0.7 – 0.95m

Typical Double Bottom Block


: Flat area (1 reading / 5 m2)

: Long & Trans(2 reading/2~3m)

DFT Measurement

Flat area 22 points

Long and Trans 60 points


DFT Measurement

26 Openings

12 Openings

8 Openings

42 openings – 92 measurements

Openings > 400mm – 4 measurements



Total area to paint 2,790m2




Total measurements 3,400

dft measurements
DFT measurements

Total area of WBT = 240,000m2

About 40 football fields

data management elcoship
Data management - ELCOship

Remote database

Electronic data gathering

Local PC

Coating Technical File

IMO PSPC Compliant

Reference drwgs

Standard documents


Tri-party agreement

Type approval

Test results

Process audit

Inspection audit

CTF audit and sign off –currently cannot be complied with



the paint specification2
The Paint Specification
  • The main elements of the specification in the PSPC are already being carried out in many shipyards and have been for a number of years
  • The main items that are new are :
    • A Coating Technical File has to be produced by the shipyard
    • All inspectors are to be qualified to a recognised standard
    • Increased inspection and prescriptive inspection and data collection
    • Audit by class


  • There are many ambiguities in the standard:
    • Salt measurement
    • 90:10 rule
    • Area judgement and other subjective elements
    • CTF detail and content
    • Products approved through testing – will they last 15 years target life
    • What happens if they do not
    • Approved inspector
  • There are some guidelines
    • PR34 from IACS
    • IACS guidance notes
  • Maintenance requirements
  • Costs of implementation
  • IACS members not acting in harmony – adding costs
  • Conflict with other regulations


  • Added time and cost to the process
  • Needs a bedding in period
  • Needs a cool and calm interpretation
  • In the wrong hands is adding to costs.
  • Places a clear increased burden on yards
  • It is going to get worse before it gets better.
  • Will it bring with it improvements?
  • Is it needed?
  • Can we do better?


thank you but how does the poem end
Thank you – but how does the poem end?

……Here’s to rust no doubt about it

Most of us would starve without it!…..

Acknowledgement to Hyun- Kug Lee for some images (Korean Shipbuilders Assoc and Samsung Heavy Industry) for some images