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Aflatoxins in Ethiopia

Aflatoxins in Ethiopia. Alemayehu Chala (PhD, Hawassa University) Usha Kulkarni (PhD, Mekelle University). Background. Ethiopia. 18 major and 49 sub agro-ecological zones Various crops are produced. EARO, 1999. Total crop production (2008/09)

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Aflatoxins in Ethiopia

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  1. Aflatoxins in Ethiopia AlemayehuChala (PhD, Hawassa University) UshaKulkarni (PhD, Mekelle University)

  2. Background Ethiopia 18 major and 49 sub agro-ecological zones Various crops are produced EARO, 1999 Total crop production (2008/09) 17.12 million tones on 12.4 million ha (11.3% of total area) Total crop production (2010/11) 22.5 million tones on 13.5 million ha Very low productivity

  3. Aflatoxins affect at all levels of value chain systems

  4. Status of Aflatoxin in Ethiopia • Endemic in the country, due to predisposing pre and post harvest factors: • Frequent end season drought (soil water stress) • Lack of resistant varieties??? • Harvesting methods • Storage facility and conditions (sanitary level, pest, moisture level….) • Low or limited knowledge of Aflatoxin by value chain actors • Lack of regulation framework and monitoring facilities both at National and Regional level- Zero protocols, standards and regulations • Limited research/lab facilities and trained personnel

  5. Institutions with food safety related activities • Ministry of Agriculture • Ministry of Health • Ethiopian Standards Authority • Institute of Nutrition • Food processing industry • Universities and research institutes

  6. Recent activities in Ethiopia • Survey • Laboratory analysis of samples • Mycological • Toxin analysis • Field experiments

  7. Laboratory capacity • Hilina Food Processing Company • Ethiopian Standards Authority • Nutrition Institute • Universities??

  8. Earlier reports • A mean levels of aflatoxin B1 of 34.7 and 105 µg/kg in samples of groundnut and peanut butter, respectively (Besrat & Gebre, 1981) • Aflatoxin levels of 5 to 250 µg/kg in groundnut seeds (Ayalew et al., 1995).

  9. Total aflatoxin contamination of samples from East Ethiopia (Chala et al., 2013)

  10. Aflatoxin concentration in groundnut samples from East Ethiopia (Chala et al., 2013) EU limit: 4 µg/kg FAO/WHO: 15 (µg/kg)

  11. Total aflatoxin level in selected groundnut varieties in southern Ethiopia (Chala et al., 2012)

  12. Conclusion and recommendation • Total aflatoxin recorded from each of the survey districts exceeds international standards • The current results should also serve as a wakeup call to create awareness on the aflatoxin problem in the country and possible remedies • Such studies will contribute to understand the full extent of the problem and also to work on appropriate control measures

  13. Conclusion and recommendation cont. • Regular monitoring/ surveillance is needed • PACA’s role • Contribute in developing standard protocols for the region • More awareness creation to improve the perception towards toxigenic fungi and associated mycotoxins

  14. Conclusion and recommendation cont. • Focus on • Adjusting planting and harvesting dates • Sanitation of fields and stores • Sorting out damaged kernels • Proper storage conditions • Biological control • Education and regulation for safe groundnut production and processing

  15. Metabolites present in sorghum samples (N=70 for Sorghum and 34 for finger millets)

  16. Opportunities and Invitation to PACA • Design a model of integrating Agriculture, Nutrition and Public Health (consumption level) and Hospital based strategies to combat Aflatoxins • Private Public Partnership /investments in sophisticated infrastructure to manage outbreaks, monitor health risks, establish regulations and standards • Role of universities in PACA- Systematic research and dissemination • Filling up Critical Capacity Buildings in the area of FOOD SAFETY; • Deepening of awareness of all stakeholders right from communities to Policy makers ; Awareness creations • Strategies for Integrated approach to develop capacity of Health Extension Workers & Agriculture Extension Workers • Assessment

  17. Aflatoxins Control in Ethiopia from Nutrition and Health Perspective • Nutrition Education Programs and capacity building of Health Extension Workers and mothers development army at the community level • Behavior change Communication strategies and IEC materials combined with Awareness Creation campaigns • Inclusion of course materials on dangers of Aflatoxins on children, Opportunistic infections with HIV aids into Public health/Nutrition curriculum • Nutrition Screening, cooking/recipe demonstration and low cost diagnostic nutrition and food science lab in conjunction with Agriculture research in Aflatoxins • Designing One Health Concept: Human and Animal Nutrition to control • Hospital based studies in determining aflatoxin level using human blood biomarkers

  18. Thank You

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