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Effective Transition from Early Intervention to Preschool. Antonia Brancia Maxon, Ph.D., CCC-A 1, 2 Karen Clark, M.A. 1, 3 1 National Center for Hearing Assessment and Management Logan, UT 2 New England Center for Hearing Rehabilitation Hampton, CT

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Effective transition from early intervention to preschool

Effective Transition from Early Intervention to Preschool

Antonia Brancia Maxon, Ph.D., CCC-A1, 2

Karen Clark, M.A.1, 3

1National Center for Hearing Assessment and Management

Logan, UT

2 New England Center for Hearing Rehabilitation

Hampton, CT

3UTD/Callier Center for Communication Disorders

Dallas, TX

Faculty Disclosure InformationIn the past 12 months, we have not had a significant financial interest or other relationship with the manufacturer of the product or provider of the services that will be discussed in our presentation.This presentation will not include discussion of pharmaceuticals or devices that have not been approved by the FDA.


  • There are always transitions in life

  • There are always options in the transition periods

  • Knowing options and goals helps to navigate through the process

  • There is more than one way to get through the transition with a positive outcome

People and places in the process identification to age 3
People and Places in the ProcessIdentification to age 3

Adults Children Environment

parents siblings home


- - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - -

speech, language centers hearing and other early and/or intervention professionals home

Language development from identification to age 3
Language DevelopmentFrom Identification to age 3

  • Discriminates people’s voices

  • Discriminates songs

  • Soothed by the presence of familiar voice

  • Recognizes many familiar words and phrases

  • Auditory memory of two items in a phrase (Put Elmo on the table)

  • Can produce most consonants and all vowels

Language development from identification to age 31
Language DevelopmentFrom Identification to age 3

  • Understands common verbs

  • Understands “What” and “Where” questions

  • Produces sentences with a subject and verb

  • Uses plurals (doggies) and present progressive (Doggie is walking)

  • Likes to sing

  • Can (and will!) repeat back ‘naughty’ words

  • Speech is intelligible to familiar adults

People and places in the process age 3 entering preschool
People and Places in the ProcessAge 3 (entering preschool)

Adults Children Environment

parents siblings home


------------- -------------- -------------

teacher classmates school

Language development age 3 to 5 home
Language DevelopmentAge 3 to 5 (home)

  • Understands and can attend to longer stories at night

  • Beginning to use conjunctions such as “and”.

  • Understands ‘knock-knock’ jokes

  • Able to tell stories and ‘tattle’ on siblings

  • Able to produce more consonants and some ‘blended’ sounds such as /br/

Language development age 3 to 5 preschool
Language DevelopmentAge 3 to 5 (preschool)

  • Can attend to short stories at circle time.

  • Can follow teacher’s instructions

  • Can talk with other students, know when to ask for clarification and how to clarify when he/she is not understood

  • Can verbally engage in play

  • Uses pronouns he/she, him/her

  • Answers most “WH” questions

  • Asks “Why?”

  • Able to follow three step commands

What s the difference

Goals of Early


Strengthen families to meet the developmental and health-related needs of their infants and toddlers who may have delays or disabilities

Families must be involved with the process to develop the IFSP

Goals of Special Education

Educate the child with a delay or disability

Families must be members of the IEP meetings that make decisions on the education of their child

“What’s the difference”


  • LEA - Local Education Agency

  • LRE - Least Restrictive Environment

  • FAPE – Free Appropriate Public Education

  • IEP - Individualized Education Plan

  • IEP Team

  • Transition meeting

  • Special Education Continuum

    • Mainstream class

    • Integrated class

    • Self-contained class (a class for children who are deaf or hard of hearing may be one type of special education class)

    • Related services


  • Referral to LEA

  • Investigate

    • word of mouth, phone calls to Special Education Director, Teacher of the Hearing Impaired, or other people in the school system with which you are familiar

  • Observe preschools

    • neighborhood preschools, special education preschools including preschools for children who are deaf or hard of hearing.

Things to consider
Things to consider

  • Services

    • Audiological services

      • hearing evaluations

      • earmolds

      • “aided” performance

    • Individual speech, language, listening services

      • center-based vs. school-based services

      • professional with expertise

      • coping with school personnel who think they “know”

    • Consultations

      • Arranging for professionals to assist school personnel

Things to consider1
Things to consider

  • Assistive Technology

    • Classroom amplification

      • determining the need

      • school obligation

    • FM

      • compatibility with child’s hearing aids/cochlear implant

      • Use with audio-visual equipment

      • interference with other wireless devices

Things to consider2
Things to consider

  • Assistive Technology

    • MAP adjustments

      • relationship to classroom performance

      • compatibility with FM

    • Troubleshooting

      • daily monitoring of hearing aids, speech processor, FM

      • trained personnel on site

    • Supplies

      • back-up replacement supplies

      • batteries

Things to consider3
Things to consider

  • Classroom Environment

    • assessing room acoustics

      • making necessary modification

    • teaching style

      • ensuring the child has access to the information

    • language of other students

      • good language and speech models

    • willingness of teacher to make modifications

      • speech, language, auditory considerations

Things to consider4
Things to consider

  • Part time preschool

    • Is the child able to be home for the rest of the day or is another preschool or daycare involved?

    • Availability of full-time preschool?

  • Extended school year

    • Are services available through the summer?

    • Make the case – do not have to wait for regression

Things to consider5
Things to consider

  • In-service

    • Technology: hearing aids, FMs, cochlear implants

    • Teaching styles

    • Classroom modifications

    • Effects of hearing loss on language learning

    • Understanding interaction of language and academic performance

Things to consider6
Things to consider

  • Potential Team Members

    • Parents (required)

    • Special Education Teacher (required)

    • General Education Teacher (required as appropriate)

    • Evaluation Specialist (required at initial meetings or when new data is presented)

    • Speech-Language Pathologist

    • Audiologist/Cochlear Implant Specialist

    • Teacher of the Hearing Impaired (may be the special education teacher on the team)

    • Qualified Administrator (required)

    • Anyone family or school thinks has knowledge or special expertise regarding child

Things to consider7
Things to consider

  • Team Members

    • Identify a school-based case manager

      • individual who is knowledgeable about hearing loss

      • individual who is able to work with outside consultants

      • individual who can maintain a good working relationship with parents

    • Parental role as advocate

      • transmitting information to school personnel

      • interaction at IEP meetings

      • knowledge of rights under Part B of Individuals with Disabilities Education Improvement Act. (IDEA)

Things to consider8
Things to consider

  • Assessments

    • Communication Evaluation

    • Auditory Perceptual Evaluation

    • Academic Evaluation

    • Audiological Evaluation

    • Classroom Environment Assessment

Transition means change
Transition Means Change

“Change always involves others….the more extensive the change, the more individuals are involved.”

“All (individuals) come to the process with different perspectives, desires, and roles to play.”

Jim Greenman

Transition requires partnership
Transition Requires Partnership

Partnership may be defined as a relationship of mutual respect between two or more competent persons who have agreed to commit to and share their knowledge, skills, and experience in meeting the needs of the child.”

SKI-HI Curriculum 2004



empowers families


participate in the process in a way that



Idea 2004 new option
IDEA 2004 – New Option

Under IDEA 2004 each state has the optionof implementing a statewide plan that extends Part C services to the age when a child becomes eligible for kindergarten.

Only the Part B IEP process is considered in this presentation.


School conducts full and individual evaluation to:

  • Determine eligibility

  • Determine educational needs of

    the child

    Assessment :

  • Is in the language and form that provides accurate information on what child can do developmentally and functionally (feasibility statement is included in law)

  • Uses variety of tools and includes information gathered from parents

Iep meeting
IEP Meeting

Assessment drives the IEP process.

Assessment is reviewed as first step in IEP meeting.

Effect of hearing loss or other disabilities on participation in appropriate activities is discussed.

Consideration of communication needs
Consideration of Communication Needs

  • Child’s communication mode was determined through appropriate assessments

  • Child’s communication needs were considered in development of the IEP

  • There are and will continue to be opportunities for direct communication with peers and professionals in the child’s preferred communication mode

    Some states have laws addressing communication and

    other rights of children who are deaf or hard of hearing

    Good to know specifics of your state

Accommodations and supports
Accommodations and Supports

The IEP contains a statement of the supports that are

needed to help achieve the goals and to make progress in

the general curriculum.

This is where to ask for specific supports:

  • Use of FM

  • In-service training

  • Language of classroom adapted to current language levels.

  • Additional checks for understanding in group situations.

  • Reduced visual distractions.

Goals considerations
Goals - Considerations

The recommended goals should:

  • be directly related to information obtained from

    the assessment;

  • meet the child’s current needs and provide a

    reasonable expectation for progress during the next year;

  • enable the child to be involved in the general

    preschool curriculum or support progress in that direction;

Goals considerations1
Goals - Considerations

The recommended goals should:

  • support functional communication;

  • represent a variety of areas including speech, language (receptive and expressive vocabulary and concepts, pragmatics, syntax), and listening;

  • present a clear plan for how progress will be documented and reported.

Services considered or provided
Services Considered or Provided

  • General education preschool


  • Special education classroom

    • Non-categorical (all) disabilities class

    • Deaf education class (oral, total communication)

    • May mainstream or integrate with Pre-K class

  • Audiology

  • Speech-Language

  • Transportation

  • Other – occupational therapy, vision, health etc.

Least restrictive environment


To the maximum extent appropriate, children with disabilities are educated in the regular education environment with children who are not disabled.



A setting as typical as possible for a preschool child that meets the child’s needs and supports communication and academic achievement.

Least Restrictive Environment

Schedule and location
Schedule and Location

  • What will happen during the school day.

    • Circle time

    • Centers

  • Length of the school day/week

    • Half-day

    • Full-day

    • 2, 3, 5 days/week

  • Amount of time for each of the services that are provided

    • Half-hour each day

  • Where the services will be provided

    • Within the general education classroom

    • Within the special education classroom

    • Outside the classroom setting

Suggestions for partnering
Suggestions for Partnering

  • Make your wishes known in advance

    • Surprises rarely benefit anyone

  • Relate requests to specific educational needs

    Examples -

    • Instruction in appropriate communication mode

    • Communication with peers who use same mode

    • Support to accomplish goals (speech/language therapy)

    • Opportunity to hear at optimal level (ongoing audiological assessment, FM, equipment monitoring)

Suggestions for partnering1
Suggestions for Partnering

  • Understand there is more than one way to achieve a goal.

  • Listen to the school’s suggestions and ideas.

  • Ask questions if something is not clear.

  • Consider compromising on means but not on end.

  • Refer to Pop-Up IEP website for suggestions to answer inappropriate statements made by educators.

    National Center for Low-Incidence Disabilities web-site http://www.nclid.unco.edu/families.html