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Cocoa & Science: Your Health’s Future Steven Warren MD DPA. Presented by:. ANTIOXIDANT/OXIDATIVE STRESS. Free-Radical Damage = Medical Conditions Healthy Chocolate = Free Radical-Fighting Cocoa is High in Antioxidants Cocoa’s ORAC = 10x that of Spinach. Presented by:.
Your Health’s Future
Steven Warren MD DPA
“Theobroma cacao L. is known to have potential cardiovascular and cancer
chemopreventive activities because of its high content of phenolic
phytochemicals and their antioxidant capacities.”
J Agric Food Chem. 2009 Nov 2. Protective Activity of Theobroma cacao L. Phenolic
Extract on AML12 and MLP29 Liver Cells by Preventing Apoptosis and inducing Autophagy.
“Cocoa flavonoids have shown a powerful antioxidant activity
providing protection against oxidation and helping prevent
oxidative stress-related diseases.”
J Nutr Biochem. 2009 Feb 4. Cocoa flavonoids up-regulate antioxidant enzyme activity
via the ERK1/2 pathway to protect against oxidative stress-induced apoptosis in HepG2 cells.
“Studies in this line suggest that high-dose cocoa intake
in young rats favours the T helper 1 (Th1) response and
increases intestinal gammadelta T lymphocyte count.”
Br J Nutr. 2009 Apr;101(7):931-40. Cocoa: antioxidant and immunomodulator.
“The acute ingestion of both solid dark chocolate and liquid cocoa improved
endothelial function and lowered blood pressure in overweight adults.”
Am J Clin Nutr. 2008 Jul;88(1):58-63. Acute dark chocolate and cocoa ingestion and
endothelial function: a randomized controlled crossover trial.
“Diets rich in flavanols reverse vascular dysfunction in diabetes,
Highlighting therapeutic potentials in cardiovascular disease.”
J Am Coll Cardiol. 2008 Jun 3;51(22):2141-9. Sustained benefits in vascular function
through flavanol-containing cocoa in medicated diabetic patients in a double-masked,
randomized, controlled trial.
“Dark chocolate induces coronary vasodilation, improves coronary vascular
function, and decreases platelet adhesion 2 hours after consumption.”
Circulation. 2007 Nov 20;116(21):2376-82. Dark chocolate improves coronary vasomotion
and reduces platelet reactivity.
“The results of this study suggest that chocolate milk is an
effective recovery aid between two exhausting exercise bouts.”
Int J Sport Nutr Exerc Metab. 2006 Feb;16(1):78-91. Chocolate milk as
a post-exercise recovery aid.
“In this socioeconomically homogenous male cohort,
chocolate preference in old age was associated with better health,
optimism and better psychological well-being.”
Eur J Clin Nutr. 2008 Feb;62(2):247-53. Chocolate, well-being and
health among elderly men.
“Dietary supplementation with [cocoa] can dose-dependently prevent
the development of hyperglycemia…The dietary intake of food or
drinks produced from cacao beans might be beneficial in preventing
the onset of type 2 diabetes mellitus.”
Nutrition. 2007 Apr;23(4):351-5. Dietary supplementation with cacao liquor
proanthocyanidins prevents elevation of blood glucose levels in diabetic obese mice.
“Results indicate that regular consumption of chocolate as part
Of a low-fat diet may support cardiovascular health by lowering
Cholesterol and improving blood pressure.”
J Nutr. 2008 Apr;138(4):725-31. Daily consumption of a dark chocolate
Containing flavanols and added sterol esters affects cardiovascular risk
Factors in a normotensive population with elevated cholesterol.
“Epicatechin or other flavonoids [in cocoa] were found to
suppress lipid peroxidation in LDL induced by
[the pro-inflammatory enzyme] myeloperoxidase.”
Am J Clin Nutr. 2005 Jan;81(1 Suppl):304S-312S. Cocoa polyphenols and inflammatory mediators.
“In a combination of in vivo and in vitro studies, we and others
have observed that cocoa can be an anti-inflammatory modulator.”
J Med Food. 2009 Feb;12(1):1-7. Cocoa flavanols and procyanidins can modulate the
lipopolysaccharide activation of polymorphonuclear cells in vitro.
“Our findings suggest that regular consumption of small doses
of dark chocolate may reduce inflammation.”
J Nutr. 2008 Oct;138(10):1939-45. Regular consumption of dark chocolate is associated with
low serum concentrations of C-reactive protein in a healthy Italian population.
“Due to their high concentration of catechins and procyanidins,
Cocoa and chocolate products may have beneficial health effects against
oxidative stress and chronic inflammation, risk factors for cancer.
Nutr Cancer. 2009;61(5):573-9. Cancer protective properties of cocoa:
a review of the epidemiological evidence.
“A significant reduction in the incidence of prostate tumors was also
observed… In conclusion, [cocoa] protected from prostate carcinogenesis.”
Eur J Cancer Prev. 2008 Feb;17(1):54-61. Protective effect of Acticoa powder, a cocoa
polyphenolic extract, on prostate carcinogenesis in Wistar Unilever rats.
“Consuming a cocoa-enriched diet could diminish
periodontist-induced oxidative stress, which, in turn,
might suppress the progression of periodontitis.”
J Periodontol. 2009 Nov;80(11):1799-808. Preventive effects of a cocoa-
enriched diet on gingival oxidative stress in experimental periodontitis.
“CBHE is highly effective in reducing mutans
streptococci counts and plaque deposition when
used as a mouth rinse by children.”
J Indian Soc Pedod Prev Dent. 2008 Jun;26(2):67-70. Chocolate
Mouth rinse: Effect on plaque accumulation and mutans streptococci
Counts when used by children.
“Our findings suggest that [cocoa procyanidins] inhibits
diabetes-induced cataract formation possibly by
virtue of its antioxidative activity.”
Exp Biol Med (Maywood). 2004 Jan;229(1):33-9. Ingestion of proanthocyanidins
derived from cacao inhibits diabetes-induced cataract formation in rats.
“Ingested cocoa can prevent high-fat diet-induced obesity by
modulating lipid metabolism, especially by decreasing fatty acid
synthesis and transport systems, and enhancement of part of the
thermogenesis mechanism in liver and white adipose tissue.”
Nutrition. 2005 May;21(5):594-601. Ingested cocoa can prevent high-fat diet-
induced obesity by regulating the expression of genes for fatty acid metabolism.
“Satiety and fullness were significantly increased after
[ingesting] chocolate milk.”
Br J Nutr. 2007 Mar;97(3):579-83. Increased satiety after intake of a chocolate
Milk drink compared with a carbonated beverage, but no difference in
Subsequent ad libitum lunch intake.
“Our study demonstrated that regular consumption of a
chocolate rich in flavanols confers significant photoprotection
and can thus be effective at protecting human skin
from harmful UV effects.”
J Cosmet Dermatol. 2009 Sep;8(3):169-73. Eating chocolate can
significantly protect the skin from UV light.
“The prospect of increasing cerebral perfusion [blood flow]
With cocoa flavanols is extremely promising.”
J Cardiovasc Pharmacol. 2006;47 Suppl 2:S210-4. Cocoa flavanols and brain perfusion.
“Our data suggests a promising role for regular cocoa
flavanol’s consumption in the treatment of cerebrovascular
ischemic syndromes, including dementias and stroke.”
Neuropsychiatr Dis Treat. 2008 Apr;4(2):433-40. Cerebral blood flow
response to flavanol-rich cocoa in healthy elderly humans.
“Our results show that cocoa extract and epicatechin
may exert a [brain and nerve] protective action by reducing
[free radical] production.”
Eur J Nutr. 2009 Feb;48(1):54-61. Neuroprotective effect of cocoa
flavonoids on in vitro oxidative stress.
Approx. 30 Studies
Approx. 40 Studies
Antioxidant Properties =
Cardiovascular Health =
Brain Health =
Cancer/Cell Protective Properties =
Skin Health =
SHOULD YOU EAT?