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Cocoa & Science: Your Health’s Future Steven Warren MD DPA. Presented by:. ANTIOXIDANT/OXIDATIVE STRESS. Free-Radical Damage = Medical Conditions Healthy Chocolate = Free Radical-Fighting Cocoa is High in Antioxidants Cocoa’s ORAC = 10x that of Spinach. Presented by:.

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slide1

Cocoa & Science:

Your Health’s Future

Steven Warren MD DPA

Presented by:

slide2

ANTIOXIDANT/OXIDATIVE STRESS

  • Free-Radical Damage = Medical Conditions
  • Healthy Chocolate = Free Radical-Fighting
  • Cocoa is High in Antioxidants
  • Cocoa’s ORAC = 10x that of Spinach

Presented by:

slide3

SCIENTIFIC SUPPORT

“Theobroma cacao L. is known to have potential cardiovascular and cancer

chemopreventive activities because of its high content of phenolic

phytochemicals and their antioxidant capacities.”

J Agric Food Chem. 2009 Nov 2. Protective Activity of Theobroma cacao L. Phenolic

Extract on AML12 and MLP29 Liver Cells by Preventing Apoptosis and inducing Autophagy.

“Cocoa flavonoids have shown a powerful antioxidant activity

providing protection against oxidation and helping prevent

oxidative stress-related diseases.”

J Nutr Biochem. 2009 Feb 4. Cocoa flavonoids up-regulate antioxidant enzyme activity

via the ERK1/2 pathway to protect against oxidative stress-induced apoptosis in HepG2 cells.

Presented by:

slide4

IMMUNE FUNCTION

  • Key Benefits:
  • Cocoa Enhances Immune Cells Function
  • Cocoa Has Antimicrobial Properties

Presented by:

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SCIENTIFIC SUPPORT

“Studies in this line suggest that high-dose cocoa intake

in young rats favours the T helper 1 (Th1) response and

increases intestinal gammadelta T lymphocyte count.”

Br J Nutr. 2009 Apr;101(7):931-40. Cocoa: antioxidant and immunomodulator.

Presented by:

slide6

CARDIOVASCULAR HEALTH

  • Cocoa protects Heart and Vascular systems
  • Neutralizes Free Radicals
  • Relieves Inflammation
  • Stimulates production of Nitric Oxide
  • Improves platelet function
  • Decreases blood clotting
  • Controls blood sugar levels

Presented by:

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SCIENTIFIC SUPPORT

“The acute ingestion of both solid dark chocolate and liquid cocoa improved

endothelial function and lowered blood pressure in overweight adults.”

Am J Clin Nutr. 2008 Jul;88(1):58-63. Acute dark chocolate and cocoa ingestion and

endothelial function: a randomized controlled crossover trial.

“Diets rich in flavanols reverse vascular dysfunction in diabetes,

Highlighting therapeutic potentials in cardiovascular disease.”

J Am Coll Cardiol. 2008 Jun 3;51(22):2141-9. Sustained benefits in vascular function

through flavanol-containing cocoa in medicated diabetic patients in a double-masked,

randomized, controlled trial.

“Dark chocolate induces coronary vasodilation, improves coronary vascular

function, and decreases platelet adhesion 2 hours after consumption.”

Circulation. 2007 Nov 20;116(21):2376-82. Dark chocolate improves coronary vasomotion

and reduces platelet reactivity.

Presented by:

slide8

SPORTS/ATHLETIC PERFORMANCE

  • Cocoa Aids Muscle Recovery
  • Enhances Energy Metabolism
  • Improves Cardio and Lung Function

Presented by:

slide9

SCIENTIFIC SUPPORT

“The results of this study suggest that chocolate milk is an

effective recovery aid between two exhausting exercise bouts.”

Int J Sport Nutr Exerc Metab. 2006 Feb;16(1):78-91. Chocolate milk as

a post-exercise recovery aid.

Presented by:

slide10

MOOD

  • Improves Blood Flow to Brain
  • Improves Mental Awareness
  • Improves Mood
  • Decreases Depression

Presented by:

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SCIENTIFIC SUPPORT

“In this socioeconomically homogenous male cohort,

chocolate preference in old age was associated with better health,

optimism and better psychological well-being.”

Eur J Clin Nutr. 2008 Feb;62(2):247-53. Chocolate, well-being and

health among elderly men.

Presented by:

slide12

DIABETES

  • Positive Effect on Blood-Sugar Levels
  • Protects Blood Vessels from Scarring
  • Minimizes Symptoms of Neuropathy
  • Protects Against Cardiovascular Issues

Presented by:

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SCIENTIFIC SUPPORT

“Dietary supplementation with [cocoa] can dose-dependently prevent

the development of hyperglycemia…The dietary intake of food or

drinks produced from cacao beans might be beneficial in preventing

the onset of type 2 diabetes mellitus.”

Nutrition. 2007 Apr;23(4):351-5. Dietary supplementation with cacao liquor

proanthocyanidins prevents elevation of blood glucose levels in diabetic obese mice.

Presented by:

slide14

CHOLESTEROL

  • Cocoa Combats Cholesterol
  • Minimizes Cholesterol Absorption

Presented by:

slide15

SCIENTIFIC SUPPORT

“Results indicate that regular consumption of chocolate as part

Of a low-fat diet may support cardiovascular health by lowering

Cholesterol and improving blood pressure.”

J Nutr. 2008 Apr;138(4):725-31. Daily consumption of a dark chocolate

Containing flavanols and added sterol esters affects cardiovascular risk

Factors in a normotensive population with elevated cholesterol.

Presented by:

slide16

INFLAMMATION

  • Cocoa Inhibits Inflammation

Presented by:

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SCIENTIFIC SUPPORT

“Epicatechin or other flavonoids [in cocoa] were found to

suppress lipid peroxidation in LDL induced by

[the pro-inflammatory enzyme] myeloperoxidase.”

Am J Clin Nutr. 2005 Jan;81(1 Suppl):304S-312S. Cocoa polyphenols and inflammatory mediators.

“In a combination of in vivo and in vitro studies, we and others

have observed that cocoa can be an anti-inflammatory modulator.”

J Med Food. 2009 Feb;12(1):1-7. Cocoa flavanols and procyanidins can modulate the

lipopolysaccharide activation of polymorphonuclear cells in vitro.

“Our findings suggest that regular consumption of small doses

of dark chocolate may reduce inflammation.”

J Nutr. 2008 Oct;138(10):1939-45. Regular consumption of dark chocolate is associated with

low serum concentrations of C-reactive protein in a healthy Italian population.

Presented by:

slide18

CANCER/CELL PROTECTION

  • Cocoa Protects Cells
  • Stimulates Detoxification Enzymes
  • Decreases Inflammation

Presented by:

slide19

SCIENTIFIC SUPPORT

“Due to their high concentration of catechins and procyanidins,

Cocoa and chocolate products may have beneficial health effects against

oxidative stress and chronic inflammation, risk factors for cancer.

Nutr Cancer. 2009;61(5):573-9. Cancer protective properties of cocoa:

a review of the epidemiological evidence.

“A significant reduction in the incidence of prostate tumors was also

observed… In conclusion, [cocoa] protected from prostate carcinogenesis.”

Eur J Cancer Prev. 2008 Feb;17(1):54-61. Protective effect of Acticoa powder, a cocoa

polyphenolic extract, on prostate carcinogenesis in Wistar Unilever rats.

Presented by:

slide20

ORAL HEALTH

  • Slows Gum-Tissue Damage
  • Slows Tooth Decay

Presented by:

slide21

SCIENTIFIC SUPPORT

“Consuming a cocoa-enriched diet could diminish

periodontist-induced oxidative stress, which, in turn,

might suppress the progression of periodontitis.”

J Periodontol. 2009 Nov;80(11):1799-808. Preventive effects of a cocoa-

enriched diet on gingival oxidative stress in experimental periodontitis.

“CBHE is highly effective in reducing mutans

streptococci counts and plaque deposition when

used as a mouth rinse by children.”

J Indian Soc Pedod Prev Dent. 2008 Jun;26(2):67-70. Chocolate

Mouth rinse: Effect on plaque accumulation and mutans streptococci

Counts when used by children.

Presented by:

slide22

VISUAL/EYE HEALTH

  • Cocoa’s antioxidant properties
  • protect the eye’s sensitive tissue and nerves.

Presented by:

slide23

SCIENTIFIC SUPPORT

“Our findings suggest that [cocoa procyanidins] inhibits

diabetes-induced cataract formation possibly by

virtue of its antioxidative activity.”

Exp Biol Med (Maywood). 2004 Jan;229(1):33-9. Ingestion of proanthocyanidins

derived from cacao inhibits diabetes-induced cataract formation in rats.

Presented by:

slide24

WEIGHT CONTROL

  • Cocoa Regulates Weight-Control Genes
  • Suppresses Appetite
  • Reduces Cravings
  • Stabilizes Blood-Sugar Levels

Presented by:

slide25

SCIENTIFIC SUPPORT

“Ingested cocoa can prevent high-fat diet-induced obesity by

modulating lipid metabolism, especially by decreasing fatty acid

synthesis and transport systems, and enhancement of part of the

thermogenesis mechanism in liver and white adipose tissue.”

Nutrition. 2005 May;21(5):594-601. Ingested cocoa can prevent high-fat diet-

induced obesity by regulating the expression of genes for fatty acid metabolism.

“Satiety and fullness were significantly increased after

[ingesting] chocolate milk.”

Br J Nutr. 2007 Mar;97(3):579-83. Increased satiety after intake of a chocolate

Milk drink compared with a carbonated beverage, but no difference in

Subsequent ad libitum lunch intake.

Presented by:

slide26

SKIN

  • Protects Skin from UV Radiation
  • Minimizes Inflammation in Skin Tissue

Presented by:

slide27

SCIENTIFIC SUPPORT

“Our study demonstrated that regular consumption of a

chocolate rich in flavanols confers significant photoprotection

and can thus be effective at protecting human skin

from harmful UV effects.”

J Cosmet Dermatol. 2009 Sep;8(3):169-73. Eating chocolate can

significantly protect the skin from UV light.

Presented by:

slide28

DEMENTIA

  • Minimizes certain causes of stroke/dementia
  • Improves blood flow to the brain
  • Improves cognitive performance

Presented by:

slide29

SCIENTIFIC SUPPORT

“The prospect of increasing cerebral perfusion [blood flow]

With cocoa flavanols is extremely promising.”

J Cardiovasc Pharmacol. 2006;47 Suppl 2:S210-4. Cocoa flavanols and brain perfusion.

Presented by:

slide30

BRAIN/STROKE

“Our data suggests a promising role for regular cocoa

flavanol’s consumption in the treatment of cerebrovascular

ischemic syndromes, including dementias and stroke.”

Neuropsychiatr Dis Treat. 2008 Apr;4(2):433-40. Cerebral blood flow

response to flavanol-rich cocoa in healthy elderly humans.

“Our results show that cocoa extract and epicatechin

may exert a [brain and nerve] protective action by reducing

[free radical] production.”

Eur J Nutr. 2009 Feb;48(1):54-61. Neuroprotective effect of cocoa

flavonoids on in vitro oxidative stress.

Presented by:

slide31

COCOA’S BENEFITS AT A GLANCE

Mood

Brain/Mental

Function

Eye/Visual

Health

Skin Health

Oral Health

Cardiovascular

Health

Weight Control

Presented by:

slide33

NUMBER OF STUDIES CONDUCTED

200+ Studies

170+ Studies

Approx. 30 Studies

60+ Studies

12+ Studies

70+ Studies

Approx. 40 Studies

30+ Studies

Antioxidant Properties =

Cardiovascular Health =

Diabetes =

Brain Health =

Mood =

Cancer/Cell Protective Properties =

Inflammation =

Skin Health =

Presented by:

slide34

WHAT KIND OF CHOCOLATE IS BEST?

  • Cocoa that is cold-pressed contains far more
  • polyphenols (epicatechins and flavanols) than
  • cocoa that has been roasted and heated.
  • How chocolate is sweetened is another
  • important point. Obviously, avoid products
  • high in refined sugars.

Presented by:

slide35

WHAT KIND OF CHOCOLATE IS BEST?

  • Processing temperature for cacao
  • beans should not exceed 110°F.
  • Choose dried, not roasted, cacao beans that
  • have been washed and thoroughly cleaned.
  • Avoid chocolates that have undergone any
  • alkalization or “dutching” processes.

Presented by:

slide36

HOW MUCH CHOCOLATE

SHOULD YOU EAT?

  • 600-900 mg of Flavonoids Daily
  • High Flavonoid Chocolate 3x per day
  • for Maximum Health Benefits

Presented by: