Teaching-Learning Cycle:From Design to Implementation Octaviano James Beltran III Science Specialist/Dean of Instruction Kingsville ISD 3/20/2014
Lesson Design Cycle Instructional Strategies Classroom Management “Capturing Kids’ Hearts”
Lesson Frameworks Comparison Matrix Instructional Strategies
Comparison Matrix Intro to Lesson Teach Lesson Evaluation of Learning
Robert Gagne’s 9 Steps of Learning • Gain Attention: Present a problem/new situation, OR use an "interest device" to grab learner attention. • Inform Learner of Objective: Describe the goal of a lesson, state what the learners will be able to accomplish, and how they will be able to use the knowledge. • Stimulate Recall of Prior Knowledge: Remind the learners of prior knowledge relevant to the current lesson in order to provide them with a framework to help learning & recall. • Present the Material: Chunk the information to avoid memory overload. Blend the information to aid in information recall. • Provide Guidance for Learning: Instructions on HOW to learn. • Elicit Performance: Practice by letting the learner do something with the newly acquired behavior, skills, or knowledge, OR demonstrate (model) it. • Provide Feedback: Show correctness of the learner's response & analyze learner's behavior (test, quiz, or verbal comments). Feedback needs to be specific, and should include: why they are doing a good job or provide specific guidance. • Assess Performance: Test to determine if the lesson has been learned. • Enhance Retention and Transfer: Discuss similar problem situations, provide additional practice, put the learner in a transfer situation, & review the lesson.
Madeline Hunter’s Instructional Theory Into Practice (ITIP) Model • Learning Objective:Select an objective at an appropriate level of difficulty and complexity, as determined through a task analysis, diagnostic testing, and/or congruence with Bloom's cognitive taxonomy. • Anticipatory Set:Motivate instruction by focusing the learning task, its importance, or the prior knowledge/experience of the learners. • State the Lesson Objective(s) to the Students • Input:Identify & teach main concepts/skills, emphasizing clear explanations, frequent use of examples/diagrams, and active student participation. • Check for Understanding:Observe and interpret student reactions by frequent formative evaluations with immediate feedback. Adjust instruction as needed and reteach if necessary. • Provide Guided Practice:Follow instruction by having students answer questions, discuss with one another, demonstrate skills, or solve problems. Give immediate feedback and reteach if necessary. • Assign Independent Practice:Provide students with opportunities to solidify skills & knowledge when they have demonstrated understanding.
5E Instructional Cycle • ENGAGE:Pique student interest and get them personally involved in the lesson, while pre-assessing prior understanding. Students make connections between past and present learning experiences, setting the organizational ground work for upcoming activities. • EXPLORE:Students interact directly with phenomena and materials, working together in teams, to build a set of common experiences which prompt sharing & communication. The teacher acts as a facilitator, providing materials and guiding the students' focus. Emphasis is placed on: Questioning, Data Analysis and Critical Thinking. • EXPLAIN:Learners communicate what they have learned, sequencing events into a logical format. Communication occurs between peers, with the facilitator, and through a reflective process. • EXTEND/ELABORATE:Students expand on the concepts they have learned, make connections to other related concepts, and apply their understandings to the world around them in new ways. • EVALUATE:Teacher determines if the learner has attained understanding of concepts and knowledge. Tools include: rubrics, teacher observation, student interviews, portfolios, and project/problem-based learning products.
Fundamental Five • Frame the Lesson: Introduce the learning objective at the beginning of the lesson, AND reflect on whether the learning objective was met at the end of the lesson. • Work in the Power Zone: Move about the room checking on everyone. Reinforce positive behaviors. Perform frequent and ongoing formative assessments. Continually micro-adjust instruction. • Purposeful Small-group Talk: 10-15 minutes of teacher talk is followed by 3-5 minutes of student talk. • Recognize & Reinforce: Make a big deal of small victories & reinforce the work it takes to be successful. • Write Critically: Provide students with opportunities to organize, clarify, defend, refute, analyze, dissect, connect, and/or expand on ideas or concepts (e.g., lists, comparison paragraph, summary, mind map, graphic organizer, purposeful note taking, exit ticket, or essay).
Tips for Successful Lessons • Chunking – space out lectures into 5-10 minute chunks, interspersed with student activities. • Activities can include: student talk, working with manipulatives, oral/written summaries, or checks for understanding (questioning). • Scaffolding – provide opportunities & examples for students to use prior knowledge as a scaffold to “hang” new learning upon. • Visuals – use graphics, word walls, and student products as a means to teach concepts, build vocabulary, & communicate expectations. • Purposeful Movement– provide students with opportunities to engage in learning through physical activityrather than observing a lecture or demonstration… this also gets the blood flowing to the brain, facilitating learning. • Learning Environment – optimize the environment in your classroom in order to help students learn and retain information. Instructional Strategies
Model Classrooms Project • Thinking: • MCP Questioning Strategies • Bloom’s Questions • Facilitation: • Kagan’s Instructional Strategies • Marzano’s Strategies • Product: • Kinesthetic • Visual • Oral • Written Instructional Strategies
Matrix MCP Beginning a Lesson: Greeting & Warm-up • Greeting(before class begins): • Meet students at the front door with a smile and a handshake. • Welcome them to class & provide direction as needed with warm-up activity. • Correct dress code, acceptable use of technology, etc. as students enter the class. • Monitor the hallways & remember our PBIS. • Warm-up(3-5 min…right after the bell): • Should be related to material learned the previous day, OR • Used to diagnose prior knowledge, OR • As a means to link prior knowledge with new material… • Should be done daily & kept in a dedicated place (I.e. bookshelf or file folder). • Should be TIMED…timer should be visible by students. • Use this time to walk about the room, making sure students are on-task while taking attendance.
Matrix Marzano’s MCP Beginning a Lesson: Three-part Objective (TPO) • TPO(3-5 min): • Consists of: • Cognitive verb – level of thinking the students will be engaged in during the lesson. • Content – specific TEKS student expectation that will be learned by the students. • Product– tangible thing that the students will produce during the lesson to demonstrate understanding/mastery of the content…should match with the level of the cognitive verb. • Should be read aloud by the teacher or students (preferably the students) • Questions should be asked about all three parts with the students being called upon randomly or required to respond chorally. In particular, the student should be able to: • Understand what level of thinking (effort) is required to be successful & should know synonyms for the cognitive verb. • Reiterate the meaning of all academic vocabulary used in the objective & what specific knowledge they should leave class with. • Describe what the product is and understand what their role in completing that product is (I.e. Are they part of a group or expected to complete it on their own?) • When TPO is carried over to the next day, make sure to reiterate to ensure students are informed • It is ok to use the same TPO on a multiple-day lesson, but the cognitive verb should change to show increases in rigor as the lesson progresses.
MCP MCP Product Possibilities
Matrix MCP Ending a Lesson • Wrap-up(3-5 min): • This is a time to… • Refer back to the TPO…“Was the objective met?” “How do we know?” • Have students clean-up their work area. • Give a short (5-10 questions) formative assessment. • Do a quick write summary ($3 summary), followed by a quick share-out. • Have the students answer an “exit ticket” question about the material…”What did you learn?”
Kingsville Academic Plan for Success (KAPS) Strategies • Focus is on 4 classes of instructional practices, each selected by KISD teachers as being most effective & easiest to implement: • Write-to-Learn • Classroom Talk • Collaboration • Questioning Instructional Strategies
Matrix KAPS Write-To-Learn Dialectical Journals (ELA/SS): a split-entry journal in which students record information and ideas taken from readings, discussions, etc. in order to encourage verbal response to materials being studied, and provide a record of information & reactions that may be useful for writing papers, participating in discussions, and studying for exams. Interactive Notebooks (Math/Sci.): a variation of the dialectical journal wherein the notebook is divided into Right Side (inputs from teacher) and Left Side (output by student) portions. Students record discussion/reading notes and information from labs/activities, as well as insert important handouts on the right side, and reorganize new information in creative formats, express opinions/feelings, and explore new ideas. Revise/Re-write: students either work together revising a document that has already been written in order to work on focus, organization, support, and use of jargon, or REWRITINGsomething for a different purpose or audience. Divide The Work: students are placed into groups in order to investigate a problem/issue, and are assigned a section of the greater work to complete. Each student prepares a draft of his or her section, then the group as a whole must synthesize a cohesive document from the disparate pieces. Peer-To-Peer: student response groups work on all stages of major assignments, including: 1. Brainstorming about possible topics. 2. Bringing in plans/notes for feedback from group members. 3. Checking that criteria for the assignment are being met. 4. Editing/revising completed drafts. 5. Writing critiques of completed documents. Focused Freewriting: students write about a particular subject or question which has been posed, but unlike true freewriting (which tends to be too unstructured for many educators), this activity is focused in order that all students will be able to write something. Sample questions: 1. What did you understand least about today’s assignment? 2. What points in the article you read for today are the most (or least) convincing? 3. Of what value is this knowledge? How does what you are studying apply to the world around you? 4. Had you been a peasant during the French Revolution, what do you feel your greatest fear would have been? 5. What assumptions do you make about the author of the piece you have just read? Entry/Exit Slips: students respond to questions the teacher poses either at the beginning (entry) or the end (exit) of class. They usually take no more than five minutes and teachers can use these to tell very quickly if students are understanding the material, can identify the key points, and compare/contrast relationships. Pre-writing Vocabulary: students write about a key term within a topic/concept before it is discussed in class. They share their definitions of what the word means to them and then the teacher brings the discussion back around to the topic/concept. This method helps to broaden students’ perspectives based on what they already know and/or think. Journals/Notebooks Group Writing Entry/Exit Slips Focused Freewriting Pre-writing Vocabulary
Marzano’s KAPS Classroom Talk Socratic Seminar: a method of teaching through whole-group discussion wherein students are encouraged to think for themselves rather than being told what to think. Consists of four elements: 1) The Text- drawn from readings in literature, history, science, mathematics, or current events. 2) The Question- is open-ended & has no right or wrong answer. 3) The Leader- a teacher or student that has dual role as leader (facilitator) and participant. 4) The Participants- study the text, listen actively, and share their ideas with the other participants. • Philosophical Chairs: students are given a central topic or question that they must choose to agree, disagree or be neutral regarding the answer. Topics that work best are ones that are important to students or that they feel strongly about. Set-up includes: • Arrange chairs in a “U” formation with students facing each other. • One side will argue in favor & the other will argue in opposition. • Students can be neutral (sitting in the curve), but they must take notes & explain their position. • Students must speak one at a time; others are listeners. • Students must address each other by first names & briefly summarize the previous speaker's points before offering his/her own comments. • The teacher can call time-out to clarify, reflect on the process or content, or refocus the discussion. • Comments should address the ideas, NOT the person. Jigsaw: students are divided into groups (or “families) of four to six students, each of which is given a specific task or portion of a document to research. Individual members of each group then break off to work with the "experts" from other groups, working on the task or researching the part of the material being studied. After intense review, students return “home” to their “families” in order to share what task they completed and how it relates to the whole group, or to teach that portion of the research. Think, Pair, Share: students are assigned partners for the activity, a topic/problem is provided to the students, and they are allowed at least 10 seconds to THINK of an answer. Students PAIR with their partner to discuss the topic/problem and are called on SHARE their ideas. Applications: Science - Making predictions about or discussing the results of an experiment, analyzing charts & graphs, drawing conclusions, etc. Social Studies - Discussing political viewpoints, analyzing causes/effects of historical events, discussing contributions of important figures, etc. Math - Asking students to think about the steps for solving a problem, discussing strategies for solving the problem, and working out the problem &comparing answers. ELA - Discussing character traits and motives, making predictions about plot, making guesses about vocabulary words based on context clues, etc. Socratic Seminar Philosophical Chairs Think, Pair, Share Jigsaw
Marzano’s KAPS Collaboration • Cooperative Grouping: students are put into groups and given a specific task to perform (I.e. complete a lab, model/simulate a concept or process, play a learning game, etc.). Each student is given an assigned role to perform and is held individually accountable for their part of the greater work. • For projects, roles might include: • Leader/Facilitator: organizes the group and ensures that the project meets the standards set out by the instructor • Recorder/Secretary: takes notes and keeps track of group data/sources/etc. • Timekeeper: makes sure that the group stays on track & gets through a reasonable amount of material in the given time period. • Checker: double-checks data, bibliographic sources, or graphics for accuracy and correctness. • Spokesperson/Webmaster: responsible for the technical details of the final product, summarizing the group's progress & findings. Engineering Design Applications: involves a series of steps that lead to the development of a solution to a problem or a new product or system. The process is not a random process and incorporates a logical sequence of steps, including: STEP 1: Identify the Problem STEP 2: Identify Criteria and Constraints STEP 3: Brainstorm Possible Solutions STEP 4: Generate Ideas STEP 5: Explore Possibilities STEP 6: Select an Approach STEP 7: Build a Model or Prototype STEP 8: Refine the Design Inside-Outside Circle: students stand in two concentric circles, facing a partner, and use flash cards to ask questions of their partner or take turns responding to teacher questions. The outside circle students ask, listen & then praise or coach their partner on the inside, and then roles are reversed. After each question or set of questions, students in the outer circle rotate to the next partner. People Hunt: students receive a list of statements/questions to answer & complete, and must find classmates who can help them answer a question or complete a statement. The teacher facilitates a discussion of the information with the students. • Numbered Heads Together: students are grouped by the teacher, are provided some content or task & then must work together to ensure all members understand the content or process. One student is randomly selected to answer for the group. That student must answer the question individually, using: • response cards • chalkboard response • manipulatives • slate share • Corners: students move to different corners of the room, depending on their point of view. Students are given a small amount of time to think & then are directed to discuss the reason(s) for their choice. The teacher selects a few students from each corner to share out. Cooperative Grouping Engineering Design Applications Numbered Heads Together Inside-Outside Circle People Hunt Corners
Matrix KAPS Questioning • Simultaneity: The teacher employs a variety of methods in order to obtain close to 100% participation in answering a question. Includes: • Pair-Share – All students talking in pairs with one speaking and one listening then reversing roles. • Choral Response – The teacher’s question is answered by all of the students at the same time. • Visual Cue – All students holding up an answer card or giving another nonverbal response at the same time. • Quick Write – All students writing an answer for a short amount of time. • Timed Thinking – All students thinking silently on a prompt for a short period of time. • Randomness: The teacher employs a variety of methods in order to ensure that close to 100% of students are participating in an activity through questioning students on content and/or processes. A sufficient number of prompts is provided by the teacher so that any one student should be called upon multiple times. Tools for employing randomness include the use of : • Popsicles Sticks - students’ names (written on large popsicle sticks) are randomly drawn out of a cup. • Dice Roll - students are assigned a number & two 12-sided dice are used to chose a student. • Pupil Picker- iPhone App that allows teachers to designate a list of students to be chosen from. • Deck of Cards - similar to “Dice Roll” • Random Number Generator - Smart Board App that randomly chooses numbers tied to students. • Wait Time & Coaching: The teacher provides assistance to a student struggling with an answer by giving them time to think and receive help from another student or from the teacher (coaching). Wait time should vary from 10 -30 seconds. The coaching process includes: • Identifying Content Gap – teacher asks probing questions beginning with close-ended questions over basic knowledge, and moving toward open-ended analysis questions in order to find the content gap. • Bridging The Gap – teacher assists student in linking previous knowledge to new content via associations with real-world situations or comparisons with simplified models. • Sealing The Gap – teacher reinforces student success through verbal and/or nonverbal praise. Cognitive Verbs in Questions: Teacher use of cognitive verbs in objective- or content-based questions asked of the students. (Ex. Can you describe for me the what is occurring during each of the stages of the cell cycle?) Cognitive Verbs in Praise: Teacher use of cognitive verbs in praising students for effort and/or correct responses. (Ex. Excellent job justifying your opinion as to the author’s point-of-view in this piece of literature!) Simultaneity Randomness Cognitive Verbs in Questions Wait Time & Coaching Cognitive Verbs in Praise
Advancement Via Individual Determination (AVID) Strategies • Based on 4 classes of instructional practices (WICR)… uses similar strategies as KAPS. • Writing • Inquiry • Collaboration • Reading Instructional Strategies
Marzano’s AVID Writing
Matrix MCP Bloom’s Critical Thinking Questioning Strategies • Bloom’s NEW Taxonomy is based on six levels of thinking: • RememberingAnalyzing • UnderstandingEvaluating • ApplyingCreating • Effective questioning techniques build from one level to the next. • STAAR test questions focus on “Applying”, “Analyzing”, and “Evaluating”. • We must ensure that students are challenged to answer questions at each of these levels. Instructional Strategies
Bloom’s “Remembering” Question Stems • What happened after _______________? • How many _______________? • Who was it that _______________? • Can you name the _______________? • Described what happened at _______________? • Who spoke to _______________? • Can you tell why _______________? • Find the meaning of _______________? • What is _______________? • Which is true or false _______________?
Bloom’s “Understanding” Question Stems • Can you write in your own words _______________? • Can you write a brief outline of _______________? • What do you think might happen next? • Who do you think about _______________? • What was the main idea? • Who was/were the key character(s)? • Can you distinguish between _______________? • What differences exist between _______________? • Can you provide an example of what you mean? • Can you provide a definition for _______________?
Bloom’s “Applying” Question Stems • If you could put yourself in the place of one of the characters, what would you have done? • What would result if __________? • Compare and contrast __________. • What questions would you like to have answered? • How do you believe the character would solve the similar situation of __________? • If you could put the main character in another story setting, how would he/she act? • If you had to plan a vacation for the main character, where would they go?
Bloom’s “Analyzing” Question Stems • What motive does __________ have? • What conclusions can you draw about __________? • What is the relationship between__________? • How is __________ related to __________? • What ideas support the fact that __________? • What evidence can you findthat __________? • What inferences can you make about __________ ? • What generalizations can be made about __________? • What assumptions do you make about __________? • What is the theme ofthe __________?
Bloom’s “Evaluating” Question Stems • Compare two characters in the selection: which was a better person? Why? • Which character would you most like to spend the day with? • Do you agree with the actions of __________? • How could you determine __________? • Why was it better that __________? • What choice would you have made about __________? • How would you explain __________? • What data was used to make the conclusion? • Would it be better if __________?
Bloom’s “Creating” Question Stems • What would happen if __________? • What advice would you give __________? • What changes would you make to __________? • Can you give an explanation for __________? • How could you change the plot? • Suppose you could __________, what would you do? • How would you rewrite the section from __________’s point of view? • How would you rewrite the ending of the story?
Marzano’s MCP Kagan’s Instructional Strategies • Focus on understanding how to implement cooperative learning in the classroom in ways that meet adolescent needs and make learning effective. Instructional Strategies
Kagan’s Kagan’s Instructional Strategies: 1 of 16 • Blind Sequencing: Teams work to sequence cards in their proper order, but there is a catch – each student holds his or her own cards, and no one else can see what is on them. • One student on a team will be the dealer. He equally distributes cards among team members face down making sure no one can see what’s on the cards. • Students mark the back of their cards with initials, a number, letter or geometric shape to identify them as their cards. • In turn, each student describes his or her cards as well as possible to teammates in an attempt to make it easy for the team to sequence the cards. • After all the cards have been described, the team works together to put the cards in the proper order. Students sequence their cards face down on the table. No card is set on the table unless all teammates agree. If the team gets stuck, only the original card holder can peek at the card and describe it to the team. • Once the team thinks they have properly sequenced the cards, they flip over the cars and check to see how they did. If the sequence is correct, they celebrate with a team cheer. If the sequence is incorrect, they correct it and discuss what went wrong and how they could do better next time. • Brainstorming: Each student is given a special role and contributes to the team’s “storm” of ideas. • Teacher assigns roles • Speed sergeant – encourages speed • Sultan of silly – encourages silly ideas too • Synergy guru – encourages teammates to build on other ideas too. • Sergeant support – encourages all ideas, suspends judgment • One student will also serve as secretary and record each idea on a slip of paper (can be in addition to another role). • Teacher announces a topic which prompts students to generate creative ideas. A prompt should have no right or wrong answers; it should be open-ended enough for students to come up with loads of creative ideas. • In teams, students generate ideas. Remind them of their roles. The secretary is not to stack or hold the slips of paper but to lay them out for the team to see.
Kagan’s Kagan’s Instructional Strategies:2 of 16 • Carousel Feedback: Teams rotate from project to project to give feedback to other teams. • Teams stand in front of their own projects. • Teams rotate clockwise to the next project. • For a specified time, teams discuss their reactions to the other team’s project – no writing at this time. • Person #1 records feedback on feedback form. • Teacher calls time. • Teams rotate, observe, discuss, and give feedback on next project. A new recorder is selected each round. • Teams continue until each team rotates back to its own project or until the teacher calls time. • Teams review the feedback they received from the other teams. • Corners: Students move to different corners of the room, depending on their point of view. This activity may help them see that not everyone shares the same point of view, and it may stretch their own way of thinking. • The teacher announces “corners.” Then she announces the choices for each corner of the room. “If you were to be a doctor, which specific profession would you choose: cardiologist, psychiatrist, dermatologist, or pediatrician?” • Students are then given a small amount of silent think time to make a choice. They will write the name of their corner on a piece of paper but should not discuss it with anyone else. • Teacher tells students to go to their chosen corners. Once they are in their corner, they must find a partner to talk with – someone not on their regular team. • Pairs will then discuss the reason(s) for their choice. Teacher will then select a few students from each corner to share what his or her partner shared.
Kagan’s Kagan’s Instructional Strategies: 3 of 16 • Fan-N-Pick: Students play a card game to respond to questions. • Student 1 holds question cards in a fan and says, “Pick a card, any card!” • Student 2 picks a card, reads the question out loud and allows five seconds of think time. • Student 3 answers the question. • Student 4 restates the answer. • For right or wrong answers, Student 4 checks and then either praises or coaches. • For higher-level thinking questions which have no right or wrong answer, Student 4 does not check for correctness, but praises and paraphrases the thinking that went into the answer. • Students rotate roles one clockwise for each new round. • Find My Rule: A great strategy for encouraging logical thinking and inductive/deductive reasoning. This activity works well for introducing a new unit, grouping students randomly for cooperative learning, and for developing problem-solving and categorizing skills. • Teacher prepares identity cards, related to an overall theme and to each other by a “rule” (one per student). • Teacher announces that students will need to form groups of a given size by circulating throughout the room to locate students who have identity cards that are connected or related to their own by some commonality or “rule.” • Teacher gives an example and checks for understanding. • Teacher passes an envelope containing all identity cards around the classroom. • Students take one card each and circulate around the room to try and find others who have identity cards that are related to theirs. • Once all members of the group have been found, the group will find a place to sit together. • Group members will articulate the rule that connects all their identities and will try to guess the theme to which all the groups are connected.
Kagan’s Kagan’s Instructional Strategies:4 of 16 • Find the Fiction: Students pick out the fictitious statement from a set of three statements. • Teammates write 3 statements: two true, one false. • One student on each team stands, then reads his or her statements to teammates. • Without consulting teammates, each student writes down his or her own best guess as to which statement is false. • Teammates discuss and reach consensus on their “best guess.” • Teammates announce their guess. • The standing student announces the false statement. • Students celebrate: If the team guessed correctly, the standing student claps for teammates. If the team was stumped and didn’t guess correctly, teammates clap for the standing student. • The next teammate stands to share. The process is repeated from Step 2. • Formations: This activity might be particularly appealing students with bodily/kinesthetic intelligence. • The teacher announces a “formation” and the ground rules to all teams. • Each team puts their heads together to discuss how they will form the shape, letter, number, etc., making sure they follow the ground rules, involve everyone in their team, and use only their bodies to form the shape. • The team then creates the formation. **Try with alphabet letters, nature shapes, polygons, road signs, or household objects.**
Kagan’s Kagan’s Instructional Strategies:5 of 16 • Inside-Outside Circle: In concentric circles, students rotate to face new partners and answer questions. • Students stand in two concentric circles, facing a partner. The inside circle faces out; the outside circle faces in. • Students use flash cards to ask questions of their partner, or take turns responding to teacher question(s). • Partners switch roles: outside circle students ask, listen, then praise or coach. • After each question or set of questions, students in the outer or inner circle rotate to the next partner. (Teacher may call rotation numbers: “Rotate three ahead.”) • Jigsaw: This is a great way for students to feel like experts and share information about what they know! • Each student on the team becomes an “expert” on one topic by working and sharing with members from other teams assigned the corresponding expert topic. • Upon returning to their teams, each one in turn teaches the group about his/her expert topic. Works well for acquisition and presentation of new material and review. • Line-Ups: Students discover that they each occupy a unique position in the class, and the class can see at a glance where everyone stands. • Teacher describes how students should line up (e.g. alphabetically, by birth date, shortest to tallest) • Students must find out where they stand relative to classmates. • Students may talk to a partner next to them to share how they feel about their position in the line-up. “How do you feel about your name?” “What do you wish your name could be?” • The teacher may then call for a different line-up.
Kagan’s Kagan’s Instructional Strategies:6 of 16 • Mix Freeze Group: Students rush to form groups of a specific size, hoping not to land in “Lost and Found.” • Students mix around the room. • Teacher calls, “Freeze!” • Students freeze • Teacher asks a question to which the answer is a number or corresponds to a key with a number. • Students group according to the number and kneel down. • Students not in groups go to the Lost and Found. Optional: Once students know the game, students in Lost and Found may be the ones to generate and ask the question. After they ask the question, they rush to join a group. • Numbered Heads Together: Teammates work together to ensure all members understand; one is randomly selected to be held accountable. • Students count off numbers in their groups. • Teacher poses a problem and gives wait time (Example: “Everyone think about how rainbows are formed. [Pause] Now make sure everyone in your team knows how rainbows are formed.”) • Students lift up from their chairs to put their heads together, discuss and teach. • Students sit down when everyone knows the answer or has something to share or when time is up. • Teacher calls a number. The student with that number from each team answers question individually, using: • Response cards • Chalkboard response • Manipulatives • Slate share
Kagan’s Kagan’s Instructional Strategies:7 of 16 • One Stray: One teammate strays from his or her team to a new team to share information or projects. • Students are seated in their teams and share information on a topic. • Student One stands up. The remaining three teammates remain seated but raise their hands. • Teacher calls stray. • Student One strays to a team which has their hands up. • Teams lower their hands when a new member joins them. • Students work in their new teams to share information tested or to solve problems. • Pairs Check: In pairs, student stake turns solving problems. After every two problems, they check answers and celebrate with another pair. • In teams, shoulder partners are formed. Partner A in each pair does the first problem, talking out loud. Partner B watches and coaches. Partner B praises. • Trade roles: partner B does the next problem. Partner A watches, coaches, and praises. • Pairs check with their eyeball partners after every two problems. Teammates coach and correct if needed. • The team celebrates after reaching agreement on the two problems.
Kagan’s Kagan’s Instructional Strategies:8 of 16 • Pairs Compare: Pairs generate multiple responses to a question, then compare their answers with another pair, and then team up to create additional solutions. • Teacher provides topic or question. • With their shoulder partners, students Rally Table ideas or answers. • Teacher calls time. • Pairs pair up with another pair. • Partner A in Pair One shares; Partner A in Pair Two adds item to the list, or if already listed, checks it off. • Partner B in Pair One shares; Partner B in Pair Two adds or checks off the item. • Partner A in Pair Two shares; Partner A in Pair One adds or checks off item. • Partner B in Pair Two shares; Partner B in Pair One adds or checks off item. • Steps 5 through 8 are repeated until all items are shared. Team Challenge: As a team, student Round Table adding more additional ideas or answers. • People Hunt: This activity has the added advantage of socialization! • Students receive a list of statements or questions to answer or complete about a topic. • Students circulate in the classroom trying to find classmates who can help them answer a question or complete a statement on their sheet. Other students may answer and sign their names only once on another student’s sheet. • The students hurry to see who can be first to find answers for the questions or complete the statements. • After the people hunt, the teacher will process and debrief the information.
Kagan’s Kagan’s Instructional Strategies:9 of 16 • Rally Robin: In pairs, students alternate generating oral responses. • Teacher poses a problem to which there are multiple possible responses or solutions. • In pairs, students take turns stating responses or solutions orally. • Rally Table: In pairs, students alternate generating written responses or solving problems. • Cooperative teams are given one piece of paper and one pen or pencil. • Teacher poses a problem or provides a task to which there are multiple possible answers, steps, or procedures. • The teacher provides an example and checks for understanding. A time limit is set. • The teacher selects a student to begin in each team. • Students quickly write their word or phrase and pass their paper to the team member on the left. • The paper continues to go around and around the table as each student adds to the team’s list. • The teacher calls time. All pencils/pens are placed on the team table. • The teams take turns sharing their responses with the rest of the class. • Students celebrate their success.
Kagan’s Kagan’s Instructional Strategies:10 of 16 • Round Table: In teams, students take turns generating written responses, solving problems, or making a contribution to the team project. • Students sit in teams of four. • Each student takes a turn drawing, pasting, or writing one answer to a query, as a paper and pencil (or paste) are passed around the group. **Works well for assessing prior knowledge, practicing skills, recalling information, and creating cooperative art.** *Rotating recorder: Students take turns recording each student’s response.* • Showdown: This activity can be used to check for mastery of concepts and skills, as a review before a quiz or test, or to assess student skills. • The teacher distributes materials to each group: a deck of question cards, one small basket and ThinkPad slips (small slips of colored paper) for each team member to each group. • The teacher selects one student in each group to be the Showdown Captain for the fist round and asks him/her to turn the question cards facedown in the center of the group’s table and pass the ThinkPad slips to each member. • The teacher explains that the Showdown Captain will turn over the card with the first question (cards can be numbered on back) and read it aloud for all team members. Then each team member will answer the question individually on their ThinkPad slips and turn their answers facedown on the table in front of them. • When the teacher gives the Showdown signal, all team members will reveal their responses at once. If all are correct, the team will get 5 team points. If not, the team will coach their team members to correct their answers and will then receive one team point. • Team members will celebrate. • The student left of the Showdown Captain becomes Showdown Captain for the next round. • Repeat from step 2 for each round.
Kagan’s Kagan’s Instructional Strategies:11 of 16 • Similarity Groups: Students move about the room forming groups based on similarities. The will discover hidden qualities of their classmates that are similar to their own. • Teacher announces a topic on which students might group. Guide students’ thinking by providing imagery about the topic. “Think about your favorite food (long pause). Think about the last time you had your favorite food (pause again). Write down your favorite food.” • Student get up and move about the class, grouping with those who have a similar response. “Group with students who like the same or similar food.” • Have students break into pairs to discuss their similarity groups and what they like most about their favorite food. They must not pair up with someone on the same team. • Simultaneous Round Table: In teams, students simultaneously generate responses, then pass their list or product clockwise so each teammate can add to the prior responses. • Teacher assigns a topic or question. • All four students respond simultaneously by writing or drawing. • Teacher signals time, or students place papers/pens down thumbs up when done with the problem. • Students pass papers one person clockwise. • Students continue writing or drawing, adding to what was already on the paper. • Continue, starting at step 3. **Alternative: Students may build their responses with manipulatives rather than draw or write.**
Kagan’s Kagan’s Instructional Strategies:12 of 16 • Snowball: Students will have fun locating the answers to questions after tossing wads of paper across the room. • Half the students in the class receive questions to answer or terms to define written on a colored sheet of paper. The other half of the students receives answers to the questions or a definition for a vocabulary term written on a different color of paper. • All students with the same color of paper line up and face the others who have a different color. • The teacher draws an imaginary line down the center and instructs the students to wad up their papers and toss them over the imaginary line. • Each student collects one of the snowballs that falls on their side of the line and then tries to find the student who is holding the match. • Students pair up, check their paring with the teacher, and reform into two lines to repeat. • Spend-A-Buck: This structure might work well for selection of a team name, logo, or topic for a project! • Each student will have four quarters (or chips) to spend on two, three, or four items. • The item with the most quarters is the team choice.
Kagan’s Kagan’s Instructional Strategies:13 of 16 • Spin-N-Review: Each team receives review questions, Spin-N-Review game board, and game marker. • Teacher selects a spin master. • Turn captain moves marker to “Who asks the question?” & spins. The selected student reads a question to teammates. • Turn captain moves marker to “think time”,” directs teammates to think about their answers and silently counts five seconds, showing the count on his/her fingers. • Turn captain moves marker to “Who answers the question?” and spins. The selected student answers. • Turn captain moves the marker to “think time” & silently counts out five seconds as students think about the answer given. • Turn captain moves the marker to “Who checks the answer?” and spins. The selected students leads the team in checking for correctness. • Turn captain moves the marker to “think time” & silently counts out five seconds as students think about how to help or praise. • Turn captain moves the marker to “Who praises or helps?” and spins. The selected student leads the team in helping or praising the student who answered. • Turn Captain passes the spinner clockwise one person. The process repeats starting with step 2. • Talking Chips: This activity equalizes the opportunity for participation. It also helps the teacher to monitor individual accountability. • Students are asked to discuss a topic in groups. • As each student talks, he/she places his/her chip in the center of the table (a pen or pencil will work in place of chips). • Once a student finishes talking, he/she cannot talk until every other “chip” has been tossed into the center. If a student doesn’t have anything to share on this particular topic, they can place a chip in the center at the end. • When all chips are down, students retrieve their chips and start over.
Kagan’s Kagan’s Instructional Strategies:14 of 16 • Stir-the-Class: The classroom develops a supportive atmosphere as students move from one huddle to another, sharing ideas, congratulating each other, and building new ideas. • Students stand in groups of four. Groups stand in a circle around the classroom. • In each group, the students stand side-by-side in a line, facing the teacher in the middle of the circle. • The teacher asks a question or presents a problem. “What are some possible themes for our class party? Be prepared to explain why.” • Students turn to face each other with hands on each others shoulders, as in a football huddle. “Unhuddle and form a line when you are ready to share.” • When groups are all ready, call a number and ask the students with that number to take a step forward. Then have those students rotate to a new group. “All threes take a step forward, turn right, and rotate three ahead to join a new group.” • Have new group members huddle again with their new group and share their ideas. If students like the new member’s ideas, they must give him a pat on the back to show appreciation. • Then, students will unhuddle and wait for a new question to discuss. • Team Chants: Creation of chants could be most appealing to students with musical intelligence. • Teammates decide on words and phrases related to the content of a particular subject. • Then they come up with a rhythmic chant, often with snapping, stomping, tapping, and clapping.
Kagan’s Kagan’s Instructional Strategies:15 of 16 • Stand Up, Hand Up, Pair Up: A class building activity that can be used to motivate, activate prior knowledge, close a lesson or group of lessons, review previously learned material, and to have fun. • All students stand up and put their hands up. • Students mingle, mix, practiced meeting and greeting, and find a partner. • Students sit and put their hands down. • Teacher assigns and defines the task. • Students are given “think time.” • Pairs of students complete the task. • Timed Pair Share • Rally Robin Responses • Teacher randomly calls on groups to report. • Students thank their partners and depart. • Repeat as many times as needed. • Telephone: One student per team leaves the room during instruction. When students return, teammates provide instruction on the information missed. • One student from each team (“the learner”) is selected to leave the room. • Remaining students (“the teachers”) receive instruction. • The teachers plan how best to instruct the learner and who will teach each part. Each takes a part of the teaching. • Learners return to their teams. • The teachers each teach their part of the content (round robin style); teammates augment as necessary. • The learners take a practice test.
Kagan’s Kagan’s Instructional Strategies:16 of 16 • Think-Pair-Share: • Students think to themselves or write on a topic or question, preferably one demanding analysis, evaluation, or synthesis, provided by the teacher. • After 30 seconds, students turn to partners and share their responses, thus allowing time for both rehearsal and immediate feedback on their ideas. • Then they share their thoughts with the class. Through this structure, all students have an opportunity to learn by reflection and by verbalization. This works well for generating and revising hypotheses, inductive reasoning, deductive reasoning, application. • Three-step Interview: • Students interview each other in pairs, first one way, then the other. • Students share with the group information they learned in the interview. It may be hypotheses, reactions to a poem or other reading, conclusions from a unit. • Who Am I: Students wonder who they are. They mingle about the classroom questioning classmates about their hidden identity. • Each student receives a secret identity taped to their back by the teacher. The identity may be an illustration, picture of a famous person, quotation, math problem or proof, vocabulary word, or a significant event. • Students must wander around the room asking yes/no questions of their classmates to determine their secret identity. Each student that is asked a question must sign the student’s identity page. (Optional: Teachers can provide a set of interview questions that students may ask.) • Teachers may limit the number of questions that can be asked or the time provided to discover one’s identity.
Instructional Strategies MCP Marzano’s High-Yield Strategies