Family Planning in Peru. Miranda Velikoff. Total Fertility Rates. Total Fertility Rates Cont. Potential Effects of Population Growth. Two popular theories…
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Two popular theories…
Malthusian Theory: A population grows exponentially, while food production is linear. With this pattern, in the future there will no longer be enough food to sustain the population.
Demographic Transition Theory: A country will go from high to low birth and death rates as they develop more sophisticated systems for education, industrialization and urbanization.
Table 2. Number of Ideal Children Reported in Survey Compared to Actual Total Fertility Rate
Table 3. By Education Level
Table 4. By Location
Table 5. By Education Level
Table 6. By Location
Table 7. By Education level
Table 8. By Location
Table 9. By Education Level
Table 10. By Location
Total fertility rate is lower among women with high levels of education and living in urban areas. These women are also more likely to know about and use contraceptive methods. The contraceptive method they choose is more likely to be a modern method.
Both institutions have had influence on the policy and perception of contraceptives to the Peruvian people throughout their history.
President Fernando Belaúnde Terry
1964|Created the Center of
1967|Association of Family
1970|Peru Demographic Report
1930|Pope Pius XI’s encyclical Casti Connubii
1966|Responsible Parenthood Program in the
Barriadas of Lima
1967|Program spread to
Jul. 1968|Pope Paul VI encyclical De Humanae Vitae
“Project for Conjugal and Family Promotion in
Sept. 1968|Latin American Episcopal Conference of Catholic Bishops
General Juan Francisco Velasco Alvarado
1971|National Development plan
did not include family
1975|APPF network completely
Continuation of the Project for Conjugal and Family Promotion in Peripheral Neighborhoods
1974|Family and Population written by Catholic Bishops of Peru
General Francisco Morales Bermúdez Cerruti
1976| Guidelines of Population Politics
“With respect to fertility, the government recognizes that the final decision and the direct responsibility fall to the parents of the family.”
Catholic Bishops influence government policy of family planning
The project for Conjugal and Family Promotion in Peripheral Neighborhoods begins to lose funding
President Fernando Belaunde Terry
Nov. 1980|National Population Council
Dec. 1980|Family Planning Rules
1983|The government provides
Family Planning Services
Alberto Ken’ya Fujimori
1991-1995|National Population Program
1995|Conference on population and development
Challenged Fujimori’s sex education programs in schools
Provided responsible parenthood programs
“The fertility rate among poor women is 6.9 children –they are poor and are producing more poor people. The president is aware that the government cannot fight poverty without reducing poor people’s fertility. Thus, demographic goals are a combination of the population’s right to access family planning and the government’s anti-poverty strategy.”
- Program manager at the Ministry of Health, 1998
Ministry of Health estimates that at least 277,793 women were sterilized during Fujimori’s sterilization campaign
Figure 5. Tubal Ligations Performed by the Ministry of Health of Peru from 1993 to 2000
Accused Fujimori of a sterilization agenda against the indigenous population
Cardinal Augusto Vargas expressed concerns publically on television
“We were required to perform a certain number of sterilizations each month. This was obligatory and if we did not comply, we were fired. Many providers did not inform women that they were going to be sterilized – they told them the procedure was something else. But I felt this was wrong. I preferred to offer women a bag of rice to convince them to accept the procedure and explained to them beforehand what was going to happen.”
- Doctor who formerly worked for the Ministry of Health
“These women are ignorant. We just bribed them; they consented to sterilization if we gave them money for their basic needs.”
- Doctor who formerly worked for the Ministry of Health
Of 157 cases of sterilization, a consent form was filled out correctly only 11 times and in 112 cases no consent procedure was even presented.
16 deaths were uncovered as a result of poorly executed sterilization procedures.
Fujimori lost foreign support and funding for the Family-Planning Program
1998-2002|National Population Plan
Ministry of Promotion for Women and Human Development
Investigated Fujimori’s alleged crimes against humanity between 1980 and 2000
68,841 people were “disappeared” during this time. Of these, 90% were from the poorest regions of the country and over 70% were native Quechua speakers
Sterilizations were not mentioned in the Commissions final report
Convention on the Prevention and Punishment of the Crime of Genocide in 1948 by the United Nations
The Contracting Parties confirm that genocide, whether committed in time of peace or in time of war, is a crime under international law which they undertake to prevent and to punish.
In the present Convention, genocide means any of the following acts committed with intent to destroy, in whole or in part, a national, ethnical, racial or religious group, as such:
(a) Killing members of the group;
(b) Causing serious bodily or mental harm to members of the group;
(c) Deliberately inflicting on the group conditions of life calculated to bring about its physical destruction in whole or in part;
(d) Imposing measures intended to prevent births within the group;
(e) Forcibly transferring children of the group to another group.
(Convention on the Prevention and Punishment of the Crime of Genocide. United Nations. 1948)
Women for the Broad Women’s Movement traveled from Cuzco to Lima in protest, demanding compensation for their suffering in June 2001.
President Alejandro Celestino Toledo Manrique
2001|The 5-year Sectorial Strategy Plan included universal healthcare
Appointed two conservative Ministers
of Health who restricted the supply
of information and resources of
Between 2002-2003, only 34% of workers stated that contraceptive supply was continuous. In 2003-2004, the number had dropped to 6%
Use of artificial contraceptives dropped by 26% between 2002 and 2004
Table 9. By Education Level
Table 10. By Location
Complications from unsuccessful abortions treated by the Ministry of Health:
President Alan Gabriel Ludwig García Peréz
Addressed the decline of contraceptive use
Created two programs:
Conditional cash transfers
Social insurance programs
While the TFR in Peru has been steadily decreasing, it is important to remember that the TFR is an average and is not homogeneous throughout the population. The socio-economic conditions of different populations affects is directly relate to the TFR as well as the actions of the Catholic Church. It is important to look at all of these aspects when investigating the situation of the country.
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