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Family Planning in Peru. Miranda Velikoff. Total Fertility Rates. Total Fertility Rates Cont. Potential Effects of Population Growth. Two popular theories…

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family planning in peru

Family Planning in Peru

Miranda Velikoff

potential effects of population growth
Potential Effects of Population Growth

Two popular theories…

Malthusian Theory: A population grows exponentially, while food production is linear. With this pattern, in the future there will no longer be enough food to sustain the population.

Demographic Transition Theory: A country will go from high to low birth and death rates as they develop more sophisticated systems for education, industrialization and urbanization.

ideal number of children
Ideal Number of Children

Table 2. Number of Ideal Children Reported in Survey Compared to Actual Total Fertility Rate

peru s diverse population
Peru’s Diverse Population
  • 45% Amerindian and 37% Mestizo
  • 81.3% of the population is Roman


  • National Languages: Spanish and Quechua
    • 84.1% of the population speaks Spanish
    • 13% of the population speaks Quechua
contraceptive methods
Contraceptive Methods
  • Modern Methods:
    • Contraceptive pill
    • Intra-uterine device
    • Injection
    • Condoms
    • Sterilization
    • Norplant
    • Emergency pill
  • Traditional Methods:
    • Periodic abstinence
    • Withdrawal
    • Folk methods
total fertility rate children woman
Total Fertility Rate (children/woman)

Table 3. By Education Level

Table 4. By Location

knowledge of at least one method of contraceptive by percentage
Knowledge of at Least One Method of Contraceptive (by percentage)

Table 5. By Education Level

Table 6. By Location

actual use of at least one method of contraception by percentage
Actual Use of at Least One Method of Contraception (by percentage)

Table 7. By Education level

Table 8. By Location

proportion of modern to traditional methods of women using at least one contraceptive
Proportion of Modern to Traditional Methods of Women Using at Least One Contraceptive

Table 9. By Education Level

Table 10. By Location

summary of survey results
Summary of Survey Results

Total fertility rate is lower among women with high levels of education and living in urban areas. These women are also more likely to know about and use contraceptive methods. The contraceptive method they choose is more likely to be a modern method.

the government and the catholic church
The Government and the Catholic Church

Both institutions have had influence on the policy and perception of contraceptives to the Peruvian people throughout their history.

government 1963 1968
Government 1963-1968

President Fernando Belaúnde Terry

1964|Created the Center of

Population and

Development (CEPD)

1967|Association of Family

Protection (APPF)

1970|Peru Demographic Report

catholic church 1963 1968
Catholic Church 1963-1968

1930|Pope Pius XI’s encyclical Casti Connubii

1966|Responsible Parenthood Program in the

Barriadas of Lima

1967|Program spread to

multiple parishes

catholic church 1963 19681
Catholic Church 1963-1968

Jul. 1968|Pope Paul VI encyclical De Humanae Vitae

“Project for Conjugal and Family Promotion in

Peripheral Neighborhoods”

Sept. 1968|Latin American Episcopal Conference of Catholic Bishops

government 1968 1975
Government 1968-1975

General Juan Francisco Velasco Alvarado

1971|National Development plan

did not include family


1975|APPF network completely

shut down

catholic church 1968 1975
Catholic Church 1968-1975

Continuation of the Project for Conjugal and Family Promotion in Peripheral Neighborhoods

1974|Family and Population written by Catholic Bishops of Peru

government 1975 1980
Government 1975-1980

General Francisco Morales Bermúdez Cerruti

1976| Guidelines of Population Politics

“With respect to fertility, the government recognizes that the final decision and the direct responsibility fall to the parents of the family.”

catholic church 1975 1980
Catholic Church 1975 - 1980

Catholic Bishops influence government policy of family planning

The project for Conjugal and Family Promotion in Peripheral Neighborhoods begins to lose funding

government 1980 1985
Government 1980 - 1985

President Fernando Belaunde Terry

Nov. 1980|National Population Council

Dec. 1980|Family Planning Rules

1983|The government provides

Family Planning Services

government 1990 2000
Government 1990 - 2000

Alberto Ken’ya Fujimori

1991-1995|National Population Program

1995|Conference on population and development

1995|Sterilization legalized

catholic church response
Catholic Church Response

Challenged Fujimori’s sex education programs in schools

Provided responsible parenthood programs

target population
Target Population

“The fertility rate among poor women is 6.9 children –they are poor and are producing more poor people. The president is aware that the government cannot fight poverty without reducing poor people’s fertility. Thus, demographic goals are a combination of the population’s right to access family planning and the government’s anti-poverty strategy.”

- Program manager at the Ministry of Health, 1998


Ministry of Health estimates that at least 277,793 women were sterilized during Fujimori’s sterilization campaign

Figure 5. Tubal Ligations Performed by the Ministry of Health of Peru from 1993 to 2000



catholic church response1
Catholic Church Response

Accused Fujimori of a sterilization agenda against the indigenous population

Cardinal Augusto Vargas expressed concerns publically on television

coerced into sterilization
Coerced into sterilization

“We were required to perform a certain number of sterilizations each month. This was obligatory and if we did not comply, we were fired. Many providers did not inform women that they were going to be sterilized – they told them the procedure was something else. But I felt this was wrong. I preferred to offer women a bag of rice to convince them to accept the procedure and explained to them beforehand what was going to happen.”

- Doctor who formerly worked for the Ministry of Health

coerced into sterilization1
Coerced into Sterilization

“These women are ignorant. We just bribed them; they consented to sterilization if we gave them money for their basic needs.”

- Doctor who formerly worked for the Ministry of Health

coerced into sterilizations
Coerced into Sterilizations

Of 157 cases of sterilization, a consent form was filled out correctly only 11 times and in 112 cases no consent procedure was even presented.

16 deaths were uncovered as a result of poorly executed sterilization procedures.

the downfall of the family planning program
The Downfall of the Family-Planning Program

Fujimori lost foreign support and funding for the Family-Planning Program

1998-2002|National Population Plan

Ministry of Promotion for Women and Human Development

peruvian truth and reconciliation commission
Peruvian Truth and Reconciliation Commission

Investigated Fujimori’s alleged crimes against humanity between 1980 and 2000

68,841 people were “disappeared” during this time. Of these, 90% were from the poorest regions of the country and over 70% were native Quechua speakers

Sterilizations were not mentioned in the Commissions final report


Convention on the Prevention and Punishment of the Crime of Genocide in 1948 by the United Nations

Article 1

The Contracting Parties confirm that genocide, whether committed in time of peace or in time of war, is a crime under international law which they undertake to prevent and to punish.

Article 2

In the present Convention, genocide means any of the following acts committed with intent to destroy, in whole or in part, a national, ethnical, racial or religious group, as such:

(a) Killing members of the group;

(b) Causing serious bodily or mental harm to members of the group;

(c) Deliberately inflicting on the group conditions of life calculated to bring about its physical destruction in whole or in part;

(d) Imposing measures intended to prevent births within the group;

(e) Forcibly transferring children of the group to another group.

(Convention on the Prevention and Punishment of the Crime of Genocide. United Nations. 1948)

still demanding justice
Still Demanding Justice

Women for the Broad Women’s Movement traveled from Cuzco to Lima in protest, demanding compensation for their suffering in June 2001.

government 2001 2006
Government 2001-2006

President Alejandro Celestino Toledo Manrique

2001|The 5-year Sectorial Strategy Plan included universal healthcare

Appointed two conservative Ministers

of Health who restricted the supply

of information and resources of


consequences of conservative stance
Consequences of Conservative Stance

Between 2002-2003, only 34% of workers stated that contraceptive supply was continuous. In 2003-2004, the number had dropped to 6%

Use of artificial contraceptives dropped by 26% between 2002 and 2004

proportion of modern to traditional methods of women using at least one contraceptive1
Proportion of Modern to Traditional Methods of Women Using at Least One Contraceptive

Table 9. By Education Level

Table 10. By Location

abortion problems
Abortion Problems

Complications from unsuccessful abortions treated by the Ministry of Health:

2000| 35,000

2001| 35,000

2002| 38,851

2003| 41,993

government 2006 2011
Government 2006 – 2011

President Alan Gabriel Ludwig García Peréz

Addressed the decline of contraceptive use

Created two programs:

Conditional cash transfers

Social insurance programs


While the TFR in Peru has been steadily decreasing, it is important to remember that the TFR is an average and is not homogeneous throughout the population. The socio-economic conditions of different populations affects is directly relate to the TFR as well as the actions of the Catholic Church. It is important to look at all of these aspects when investigating the situation of the country.

works cited
Works Cited

Angeles, Gustavo, David K. Guilkey, and Thomas A. Mroz. "The Determinants of Fertility in Rural Peru: Program Effects in the Early Years of the National Family Planning Program." Journal of Population Economics 18.2 (2005): 367-89. EBSCO Host. Web. 11 Mar. 2011.

BBC. "Fujimori Sentenced for Corruption." BBC News. BBC, 30 Sept. 2009. Web. 12 Apr. 2011. .

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Belaunde, Fernando. La Conquista El Peru Por Loa Peruanos. 3rd ed. Lima: MINERVA, 1994. Print.

Boesten, Jelke. "Free Choice or Poverty Alleviation? Population Politics in Peru under Alberto Fujimori." European Review of Latin American and Caribbean Studies 82 (2007): 3-20. 

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Centro De Estudios De Poblacion Y Desarollo (CEPD). Informe DemograficoPeru 1970. Lima: CEPD, 1972. Print.

works cited cont
Works Cited (cont.)

"CIA - The World Factbook." Welcome to the CIA Web Site — Central Intelligence Agency. Web. 28 Mar. 2011.

Coe, Anna-Britt. "From Anti-Natalist to Ultra-Conservative: Restricting Reproductive Choice in Peru." Reproductive Health Matters 12.24 (2004): 56-69. Print.

Conaghan, Catherine M. Fujimori's Peru. Pittsburgh: University of Pittsburgh, 2005. Print.

Crabtree, John. Peru under Garcia: An Opportunity Lost. Pittsburgh: University of Pittsburgh, 1992. Print.

Estep, Raymond, and Documentary Research Division Aerospace Studies Institute Air University. The Role of the Military in Peruvian Politics. Montgomery: Maxwell Airforce Base, 1970. Print.

Ewig, Christina. "Hijacking Global Feminism: Feminists, the Catholic Church, and the Family Planning Debacle in Peru." Feminist Studies 32.3 (2006): 632-59. Academic Search Premier. Web. 11 Mar. 2011.

Getgen, Jocelyn E. “Untold Truths: The Exclusion of Enforced Sterilizations from the Peruvian Truth Commission's Final Report” 29 B.C. Third World L.J. 1 (2009): 1-34. Heinonline. Web. 11 Mar. 2011

works cited cont1
Works Cited (cont.)

Gribble, James N., Suneeta Sharma, and Elaine P. Menotti. "Family Planning Policies and Their Impacts On the Poor: Peru's Experience." International Family Planning Perspectives33.4 (2007): 176-81. Academic Search Premier. Web. 11 Mar. 2011.

Hurtado, Graham, Guillermo Marco Del Pont, Fernandez Baca, TantaleonVanini, Vargas Caballero, Alberto Jimenez De Lucio, Morales Bermudez, and Juan Velasco Alvarado. "Plan Nacional De Desarollo." Oficina Nacional De Informacion 5 (1971): 52-64. Print.

Instituto Nacional De Estadistica E Informatica, AlvaDavila, Luis Ulloa, and Zoraida Castro. PeruEncuestraDemografica Y De Salud Familiar. Comp. Rosario Cespedes. Lima: Instituto Nacional De Estadistica E Informatica, 2005. Print.

Instituto Nacional De Estadistica E Informatica , Jorges Reyes, and Luis Ochoa. EncuestraDemografico Y De Salud Familiar 2000. Lima: Instituto Nacional De Estadistica E Informatica, 2001. Print.

Instituto Nacional De Estadistica E Informatica. EncuestraDemografica Y De Salud Familiar 1991/1992. Comp. Alberto Padilla, Luis H. Ochoa, and Albert M. Marckwardt. Vol. 2. Columbia: Macro International, 1992. Print.

works cited cont2
Works Cited (cont.)

Instituto Nacional De Estadistica, Graciela F. Baca De Valdez, Eduardo M. Turner, and Yolanda C. Ascencio. Aspectos Demograficos Y Prevalencia De Anticonceptivos En El Peru. Lima: Ministerio De Salud Del Peru, 1983. Print.

Instituto Nacional de Plantificacion. Lineamiento de Politicas de Poblacion en el Peru. DirectoSupremo No. 00625-76-SA. Lima-Peru. 1974.

Klaiber, Jeffrey L. Religion and Revolution in Peru: 1824-1976. London: University of Notre Dame, 1977. Print.

Lopez, Raul N. "Priests and Pillas Catholic Family Planning in Peru, 1967-1976." Latin American Research Review 43.2 (2008): 34-56. Project MUSE. Web. 11 Mar. 2011.

Lopez, Raul. "La Asociacion Peruana de Proteccion Familiar y los inicios de la anticoncepcion en el Peru (1967-1975)". Histórica (Lima), 33.1 (2009): 87. AcademicOneFile. Web. 03 Apr. 2011.

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Works Cited (cont.)

Masterson, Daniel, and Instituto De Estudios Politicos Y Estrategicos. Fuerza Armada Y Sociedad En El Peru Moderno: Un Estudio Sobre Relaciones Civiles Militares 1930-2000. Lima: Instituto Politicos Y Estrategicos, 2001. Print.

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Works Cited (cont.)

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