Implementing the Problem-Solving/Response to Intervention Minooka School District 201 Response to Intervention
If we can really understand the problem, the answer will come out of it, because the answer is not separate from the problem. -Krishnamurti
Contextual Issues Affecting The Problem-Solving Process in General and Special Education • IDEA Re-Authorization • Focus on academic outcomes • General education as baseline metric • Labeling as a “last resort” • Increasing general education options • Pooling building-based resources • Flexible funding patterns • RtI Introduced as option for LD eligibility • ESEA Legislation-No Child Left Behind • National Emphasis on Reading • Evidence-based Interventions
Overview • Defining RTI • Where did it come from and why do we need it? • Support for RTI in federal law • Core principles • Special education eligibility considerations • Policy issues • Professional development issues
Why Focus on Reading? • 85% of all curriculum is delivered through the written word. • Reading and math scores are directly linked. • New standards and assessments for graduation.
How Big is the Problem? • According to the most recent NAEP assessments, only 31 percent of 4th graders are proficient in reading. • Low-income students did half as well. In fact, over half of poor fourth graders failed to show even a basic level of knowledge in reading, science, or history.
But… • We KNOW what to do! • We CAN make a difference! • The RESEARCH gives us the technical knowledge and tools to teach each child to read!
What is RTI? • “RTI is the practice of (1) providing high-quality instruction/intervention matched to student needs and (2) using learning rate over time and level of performance to (3) make important educational decisions to guide instruction” National Association of State Directors of Special Education, 2005
Response to Intervention: What are the big ideas? • High quality instruction/intervention: Instruction or intervention matched to student need that has been demonstrated empirically and by practice to demonstrate high learning rates for most students • Learning rate and level of performance: Learning rate refers to student’s growth in academic or behavioral skills over time in comparison to prior levels and peer growth rates. Level of performance refers to a students relative standing (growth) on some critical dimension of academic or behavioral skills compared to expected/predicted growth. • Important educational decisions: Student intervention outcomes drive decision making at every tier. Decisions about intensity and duration of interventions are based upon data across multiple tiers of intervention.
What RTI Is and Is Not Is: • RTI isan overall integrated system of service delivery. Is Not: • RTI is not just an eligibility system—a way of reducing the numbers of students placed into special education.
What RTI Is and Is Not Is: • RTI is effective for students who are at risk for school failure as well as students in other disability categories. Is Not: • RTI is not limited to students with learning disabilities.
Why RTI? • Provides appropriate learning experiences for all students • Uses school-wide progress monitoring to assess entire class progress and individual student progress • Promotes early identification of students at risk for academic failure • Involves multiple performance measures rather than measurement at a single point in time • Under RTI, students receive interventions based on reliable and valid data earlier than the “wait tofail” scenario;
Why RTI? continued • RTI identifies specific skill deficits, whereas teacher referrals are more frequently general statements of need; • Scientifically-based interventions are used more frequently and earlier; • Over identification based on race/ethnicity is reduced in programs for students with learning disabilities and mental retardation; • African-American children are twice as likely as white children to be labeled mentally retarded and more likely to be label EBD
Why RTI? continued Greater numbers of at-risk students achieve benchmarks; Principals and superintendents want to know if students are achieving benchmarks, regardless of placement in general education, gifted, or special education; SLD category has grown 300% since 1976-80% there because they haven’t learned how to read;40% there because they haven’t been taught to read.
Problem Solving • A process that uses the skills of professionals from different disciplines to develop and evaluateintervention plans that improve significantly the school performance of students
Define the Problem Defining Problem/Directly Measuring Behavior Problem Analysis Validating Problem Identify Variables that Contribute to Problem Develop Plan Evaluate Ws It Effective? Implement Plan Implement As Intended Progress Monitor Modify as Necessary Problem Solving Process
Research on Problem-Solving/RtI • Focused on accuracy of referral methods and response to proven interventions • RtI methods (local comparisons and multiple measurement) were superior to teacher referral for problem accuracy. • Teachers over-referred male students • Greater proportion of African American students responded successfully to intervention relative to similarly at-risk Caucasian students. Reduced disproportional placements. • Early intervention was powerful • Significant reduction in LD placements (VanDerHeyden, Witt, and Naquin)
Research and PSM/RtI • Problem identification is more accurate using the PSM (Gap Analysis) compared to simply teacher referral. • The number of students requiring services has not diminished--the WAY the services are provided has changed. • Universal screening and progress monitoring practices ensure that students do not slip through the cracks • In most cases, the percent of students receiving LD services has diminished.
What Have We Learned From Other States? • Changes in assessment and intervention practices can occur--generally it takes a number of years to effect the change completely. • Teacher and parent satisfaction is greater with the PSM/RtI model (Illinois Flexible Service Delivery Model) • Student performance is enhanced under the PSM/RtI model • Student/parent rights do not change under this model
Status of Reauthorization • Title: “Individuals with Disabilities Education Improvement Act” • Passed House in 2003, Senate in 2004 • Signed by President Bush in December. • IN EFFECT July 1, 2005 • Regulations in Fall
Individuals with Disabilities Education Improvement Act • (B) Additional authority._In determining whether a child has a specific learning disability, a local educational agency may use a process that determines if the childresponds to scientific, research-based intervention. • Process refers to “Problem Solving Process” • Responds refers to “Response to Intervention”
(5) SPECIAL RULE FOR ELIBIGILITY DETERMINATION- In making a determination of eligibility under paragraph (4)(A), a child shall not be determined to be a child with a disability if the determinant factor for such determination is—(A) lack of appropriate instruction in reading, including in the essential components of reading instruction (as defined in section 1208(3) of the ESEA of 1965);(B) lack of instruction in math; or(C) limited English proficiency.
Proposed Regs • For a child suspected of having a specific learning disability, • the group must consider, as part of the evaluation described in • §§300.304 through 300.306, data that demonstrates that-- • (1) Prior to, or as a part of the referral process, the child was • provided appropriate high-quality, research-based instruction in • regular education settings, consistent with section 1111(b)(8)(D) and • (E) of the ESEA, including that the instruction was delivered by • qualified personnel; and • (2) Data-based documentation of repeated assessments of achievement • at reasonable intervals, reflecting formal assessment of student • progress during instruction, was provided to the child'sparents.
Proposed Regs • (c) If the child has not made adequate progress after an appropriate • period of time, during which the conditions in paragraphs (b)(1) and • (2) of this section have been implemented, a referral for an • evaluation to determine if the child needs special education and • related services must be made.
But… • We KNOW what to do! • We CAN make a difference! • The RESEARCH gives us the technical knowledge and tools to teach each child to read!
Response to Intervention: Core Principles • Use all available resources to teach all students • Use scientific, research-based interventions • Monitor classroom performance • Conduct universal screening/benchmarking • Use multi-tier model of service delivery • Make data based decisions using a problem solving/standard protocol approach • Monitor progress frequently • Implementation fidelity
System-wide Commitment Three Tiers of Instruction Comprehension Vocabulary Fluency Phonics Phonemic Awareness Intensive Intervention Strategic Instruction Core & Content Screening Diagnostics Monitoring Five Essential Components Outcome Assessments Leadership
Use all available resources to teach all students • RTI practices are built on the belief that all students can learn and everyone supports all students. • RTI focuses on student intervention need and not “What is wrong with the student?” • Systems Change: Integrated approach • No one building/district will look the same
Implications • Poor/lack of instruction must be ruled out • Curricular access blocked by any of the following must be addressed • Attendance • Health • Mobility • Sufficient exposure to and focus on the curriculum must occur • Frequent, repeated assessment must be conducted
Use all available resources to teach all students, cont. • Basic Education • LAP-Title • Reading First (NCLB, 2001) • School Improvement Plan • Student Learning Plans • Special Education (IDEA 2004) • Other resources available to the building or district
Use scientific, research-based interventions • Curriculum and instruction approaches must have a high probability of success for the majority of students • Offer as soon as it is clear the student is lagging behind • Increase intensity of instruction and practice • Opportunity for explicit and systematic instruction/practice and cumulative review • Provide skillful instruction with good error correction, immediate feedback • Guided by and in response to progress monitoring data • Must provide a supportive atmosphere for learning
Monitor classroom performance • General education teacher play a vital role in designing and delivering high quality instruction • General education teachers also monitor student progress through CBMs • Student performance in relationship to state standards (GLEs)
Universal Screening • School staff conduct universal screening in all academic areas and behavior to all students three times/year to identify students at risk • Benchmarks document whether a child is on track compared to peer group and/or state standards • The student’s data at benchmark testing periods can be utilized to validate the effectiveness of intervention. Is the gap closing?
Response to Intervention:How Well Are We Doing? • A systematic and data-based method for determining the degree to which a student has responded to intervention. • Determined solely through analyzing data • Services should intensify for a student as the student response to intervention is below expectations. • When the intensity of services exceed significantly those available through general education, then a student should be considered for special education funding.
Response to Intervention:How Well Are We Doing? • What do we do when a student has been “placed” in special education but the student’s rate of progress has not changed significantly? • This has significant implications for special education re-evaluations under the RtI model.
RtI:The Conceptual Model • Integrate with Core Instructional Programs and Activities in the District • Reading First, Early Intervention, Positive Behavior Support • 3 Tiered Model of Service Delivery and Decision-Making • “Universal”--What all students get • “Supplemental”--additional focus and intensity • “Intensive”--modifying instructional strategies • Problem-Solving • Can occur at any level • Increases in intensity across levels
Features of a Multi-Tiered Model • Each tier represents increasingly intense level of services associated with increasing levels of learner needs • All students, including those with disabilities are found in Tiers I, II, and III • The nature of the academic or behavioral intervention changes at each tier, becoming more rigorous as the student moves through the tiers • Students move up and down the tiers depending on need
Three Tiered Model of School Supports Behavioral Systems Academic Systems Tier 3: Intensive, Individual Interventions Individual Students Assessment-based Intense, durable procedures Tier 3: Intensive, Individual Interventions Individual Students Assessment-based High Intensity Of longer duration 1-5% 1-5% Tier 2: Targeted Group Interventions Some students (at-risk) High efficiency Rapid response 5-10% Tier 2: Targeted Group Interventions Some students (at-risk) High efficiency Rapid response 5-10% Students Tier 1: Universal Interventions All settings, all students Preventive, proactive 80-90% Tier 1: Universal Interventions All students Preventive, proactive 80-90%
Three-Tier Model of School Supports 5% of your students should be here 15% of your students should be here 80% of your students should be here
Use multi-tier model of service delivery: Tier I • Tier I: ALL Students • All students receive high quality scientific research based instruction in the core curriculum in all areas • Core curriculum provides the foundation for instruction upon which all strategic and intensive interventions are formulated • Serves 80-90% of the student body • Some Tier 1 interventions may be applied to at risk students followed by progress monitoring
Use multi-tier model of service delivery: Tier II • Tier II: Some Students • Strategic interventions supplements instruction to students who are not achieving standards through the core curriculum alone • Consists of 5-10% of the student body • Occurs in small groups of 3-6 students • Short-term in duration [9-12 week blocks] • Recommended 3-4 sessions per week at 30-60 minutes per session • Students progress is monitored more frequently at Tier II, usually every 2 weeks
Use multi-tier model of service delivery: Tier II, cont. • Tier II: Some Students • Students may receive more than one block of Tier II interventions if progressing but who have not yet reached the goal • Students who reach goal would be reintegrated into Tier I • Students who do not progress in Tier II may require more intensive interventions
Use multi-tier model of service delivery: Tier III • Tier III: Few Students • Intensive interventions are designed to accelerate a student’s rate of learning by increasing the frequency and duration of individualized interventions based on targeted assessment data. • Students at Tier III are those performing significantly below standards and have not adequately responded to Tier I or Tier II interventions • Consists of less than 5% of student body • Occurs in groups of no more than 3 ideally • May occur longer than 9-12 weeks • Students progress is monitored on at least a weekly basis
Use multi-tier model of service delivery: Tier III, cont. • Tier III: Few Students • Consists of less than 5% of student body • Occurs in groups of no more than 3 ideally • May occur longer than 9-12 weeks • Student progress is monitored on at least a weekly basis • Students who are successful at Tier III reintegrate to Tier I with Tier II support • If not successful at Tier III, consider referral for special education and/or other long-term planning [504 plan, additional Tier III cycle]
Intensive (Tier III) Reading Intervention • Specifically designed reading instruction that extends beyond the time allocated for Tier I and Tier II • High school students may require “double dosing” in a two period block, using a research-validated specially designed program to accelerate their learning to read
Data-Based Decision Making • The purpose of using data based decision making is to find the best instructional approach for a student with an academic or behavioral problem • Decisions are made by teams consisting of professionals knowledgeable about the student, and the parent • Decisions are made through the problem solving process or standard protocol
Designing Instruction to Meet Student Needs Standardized Assessments Benchmarking or Screening Instructional Problem Solving Requires taking multiple sources of evidence and selecting appropriate instructional interventions based on identified student needs Progress Monitoring Performance or Criterion Assessments
Define the Problem Clearly identify the deficit area Evaluate the Plan Compare progress to the aimline. Did it work? Analyze the Cause Develop a hypothesis: Why is the problem happening? Develop a Plan Decide on the intervention, timeframe, frequency and intervention provider Implement the Plan Carry out the intervention as planned A Problem Solving Process