Equal Employment Opportunity. Historical Perspective of EEO Legislation. Equal Employment Opportunity (EEO) The treatment of individuals in all aspects of employment—hiring, promotion, training, etc.—in a fair and nonbiased manner. Changing National Values Economic Disparity
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Challenges to Laws
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Source: Adapted from James Ledvinda And Vida Scarpello, Federal Regulation of Personnel and Human Resources Management, 2e. (Boston: PWS-Kent Publishing, 1990).
To fail or refuse to hire or to discharge any individual, or otherwise to discriminate against any individual with respect to his [or her] compensation, terms, conditions, or privileges of employment because of such individual’s race, color, religion, sex, or national origin....
All private employers in interstate commerce who employ fifteen or more employees for twenty or more weeks per year
State and local governments
Private and public employment agencies, including the U.S. Employment Service
Joint labor-management committees that govern apprenticeship or training programs
Labor unions having fifteen or more members or employees
Public and private educational institutions
Foreign subsidiaries of U.S. organizations employing U.S. citizens
Provide sloping sidewalks and entrances.
Install wheelchair ramps.
Reposition shelves for the easy reach of materials.
Rearrange tables, chairs, vending machines, dispensers, and other furniture and fixtures.
Widen doors and hallways.
Add raised markings on control buttons.
Provide designated accessible parking spaces.
Install hand controls or manipulation devices.
Provide flashing alarm lights.
Remove turnstiles and revolving doors or provide alternative accessible paths.
Install holding bars in toilet areas.
Redesign toilet partitions to increase access space.
Add paper cup dispensers at water fountains.
Replace high-pile, low-density carpeting.
Reposition telephones, water fountains, and other needed equipment.
Add raised toilet seats.
Provide a full-length bathroom mirror.ADA Suggestions for an Accessible Workplace
Source: Adoption of Questions and Answers to Clarify and Provide a Common Interpretation of the Uniform Guidelines on Employee Selection Procedures, Federal Register 44, no. 43 (March 2, 1979): 11998.
An employer interviews 150 applicants – 100 white, 50 black. If 25 whites are hired, what’s the least number of blacks that have to be hired to avoid charges of adverse impact?
1. Determine selection rate of majority 2. Determine 80% of selection rate
White hired = 25 = 25% x =.8 (80% black hired)
White interviewed = 100 25 (whites hired) x = (.8)(25)
x = 20% (selection rate)
3. Determine 80% of selection rate of minority
x = 20%
50 (black applicants)
x = (.20) (50)
x = 10 blacks must be hired
The Four-Fifths Rule A rule of thumb followed by the EEOC in determining adverse impact for use in enforcement proceedings.
bona fide occupational qualification (BFOQ)
equal employment opportunity
fair employment practices (FEPs)
Uniform Guidelines on Employee Selection Procedures
workforce utilization analysisKey Terms