Applied Linguistics Overview of course’ Linguistics’ End of Term Dr. AnsaHameed
Today’s Lecture • The definition of applied linguistics • The major fields of applied linguistics • Overview of course ‘Linguistics’
What is ‘applied linguistics’? • Applied linguistics is a branch of linguistics where the primary concern is the application of the linguistic theories, methods and findings to the explanation of language problems which have arisen in other areas of experience.
History of Term: Applied Linguistics • The term Applied Linguistics (AL) is an Anglo-American coinage. • It was founded first at the University of Edinburgh School of Applied Linguistics in 1956. • Then at the Center of Applied Linguistics in Washington D.C.in 1957. • AL use was theoretical linguisticspropagated by those who clearly wanted to be known as scientists and not as humanists. • AL in the past based itself on the findings of
By the time AL has broadened itself as to make use of many sciences in language teaching, like: Sociology Psychology Logic Literature Mathematics Anthropology Computing Translation Statistics Philosophy Mrs. Hind Albeladi - March 2010
AL covers two main points: • The study of second and foreign language learning and teaching. • The study of language and linguistics in relation to practical problems. Richards et al. 1985
AL is the utilization of the knowledge about the nature of language achieved by linguistic research for the improvement of the efficiency of some practical task in which language is a central component. Corder 1974
A branch of linguistics where the primary concern is the application of linguistic theories, methods and findings to the elucidation of language problems which have arisen in other areas of experience. Crystal 1985
“a multidisciplinary approach to the solution of language-related problems.” Strevens(1992)
Aim of Applied Linguistic Studies: • The study of second language and foreign language learning and teaching. • Investigate problems related to language learning and teaching. • To find some practical steps to solve those problems.
The need for A L • The importance of AL lies in the significant role it has in solving language-related problems. • Language is crucial to human lives. Without language, most important activities will be inconceivable. • Throughout the history and across the world, people have been using language to communicate. • In our world there are many rapid changes. These changes affect how people use language. • Hence, people need to investigate and understand the facts of language use, to organize and formalize what they know and to subject their knowledge to rational consideration and critical analysis. • Only by doing so, people will be able to set out the options for action and the reasoning behind them. Mrs. Hind Albeladi - March 2010
Some of the questions that applied linguists ask include: - How can languages best be learnt and taught? - What social factors affect language learning? - How can technology be used to contribute to the effectiveness of language teaching/learning? - What are the related problems associated with language disorders? - How can these be prevented? Mrs. Hind Albeladi - March 2010
Major Branches of AL: bilingualism and multilingualism literacies computer-mediated communication (CMC) lexicography second language acquisition language assessment contrastive linguistics discourse analysis conversation analysis translation language pedagogy pragmatics language planning and policies Mrs. Hind Albeladi - March 2010
Some of the Areas related to A L Mrs. Hind Albeladi - March 2010
Conclusion AL has become an independent and mature discipline since the middle sixties of the last century. As an applied science that has a definite goal to reach, it is interdisciplinary in nature: it seeks to apply all the related fields to foreign language education. It is process-oriented in the sense that it is interested not only in the product, but also in the process of teaching. Mrs. Hind Albeladi - March 2010
Conclusion This implies the investigation of the internal structure or the cognitive aspects of the learner. It is very important for language teachers to have an understanding of the different aspects of language and draw out useful implications and applications for foreign language learning and teaching. Mrs. Hind Albeladi - March 2010
References Cook, G. (2003). Applied linguistics. Oxford: Oxford University Press. R. B. Kaplan (Ed.) (2002), The oxford handbook of applied linguistics New York: Oxford University Press.
Course Outline: Linguistics (ENG455) • Topics Covered: • Introduction to Linguistics • Modern Linguistics vs. Traditional Grammar • Language: Definitions, Form and Function • Human communication vs. Animal Communication • Levels of Language • Phonetics • Phonology
Morphology • Syntax • Syntactic Analysis • Semantics • Pragmatics • Language Origin • Language Development • First Language Acquisition • Second Language Learning
Historical Linguistics • Structuralism: Saussure • Generativism: Chomsky • Functionalism: Halliday • The Prague School • The London School • Relational Grammar • Tagmemics (In syntax lectures) • Case Grammar (In syntax lectures) • Startificational Grammar (In syntax lectures)
Applied Linguistics • Sociolinguistics • Sign Language • Discourse Analysis • Thank You