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Mapping our World. Chap. 2. Latitude and Longitude 2.1 Types of Maps 2.2 Remote Sensing 2.3. Latitude and Longitude – 2.1. Objectives. Compare & contrast latitude & longitude Describe how time zones vary. Cartography. Science of mapmaking. Locating objects on a sphere.

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mapping our world

Mapping our World

Chap. 2

Latitude and Longitude 2.1

Types of Maps 2.2

Remote Sensing 2.3

slide2

Latitude and Longitude – 2.1

Objectives

  • Compare & contrast latitude & longitude
  • Describe how time zones vary
slide3

Cartography

Science of mapmaking

slide5

Locating objects on a sphere

  • Latitude

(Lat = fLat) These lines are horizontal and tell how far North or South an object is

slide6

Locating objects on a sphere

  • Latitude
  • Equator drawn at center
slide7

Locating objects on a sphere

  • Latitude
  • Equator drawn at center
  • Lines are parallel
slide8

Locating objects on a sphere

  • Latitude
  • Equator drawn at center
  • Lines are parallel
  • 90º N is at the north pole
slide10

Locating objects on a sphere

  • Latitude
  • Equator drawn at center
  • Lines are parallel
  • 90º N is at the north pole
slide11

Practice Problem 1

The Earth’s circumference is about 40 000 km. There are 360º in a circle. What is the distance between

degrees?

40 000 km

slide12

Locating objects on a sphere

  • Latitude
  • Equator drawn at center
  • Lines are parallel
  • 90º N is at the north pole
  • Each latitude line is 111km
slide13

Locating objects on a sphere

  • Latitude
  • Equator drawn at center
  • Lines are parallel
  • 90º N is at the north pole
  • Each latitude line is 111km
  • Degrees are divided into minutes and seconds.

1 º = 60’ 1’ = 60”

slide14

Locating objects on a sphere

  • Longitude

These are ‘long’. They go up and down and tell how far East or West an object is

slide15

Locating objects on a sphere

  • Longitude
  • Travel through the poles
slide16

Locating objects on a sphere

  • Longitude
  • Travel through the poles
  • They are NOT parallel
slide17

Locating objects on a sphere

  • Longitude
  • Travel through the poles
  • They are NOT parallel
  • The prime meridian is 0º longitude and goes through Greenwich, England
slide18

Locating objects on a sphere

  • Longitude
  • Travel through the poles
  • They are NOT parallel
  • The prime meridian is 0º longitude and goes through Greenwich, England
  • On the opposite side of the globe the prime meridian is the International date line.
slide19

Practice Problem 2

What is the distance between

longitude

degrees?

slide21

Time Zones

  • The Earth is divided into 24 zones
slide22

Practice Problem 3

How many degrees for each time zone? (Remember there is a total of 360º)

slide24

Time Zones

  • The Earth is divided into 24 zones
  • The dividing lines may be slightly adjusted
slide25

Time Zones

  • The Earth is divided into 24 zones
  • The dividing lines may be slightly adjusted
  • The International Date line marks a division between
slide26

Time Zones

  • The Earth is divided into 24 zones
  • The dividing lines may be slightly adjusted
  • The International Date line marks a division between
  • When you cross this traveling West you add a calendar day
slide27

Time Zones

  • The Earth is divided into 24 zones
  • The dividing lines may be slightly adjusted
  • The International Date line marks a division between
  • When you cross this traveling West you add a calendar day
  • When you cross this East you move the calendar back a day
slide29

Types of Maps – 2.2

Objectives

  • Compare and contrast different map projections
  • Analyze topographic maps
  • Describe map characteristics, such as map scales and legends
slide30

Types of Maps

  • Mercator Projections
slide31

Types of Maps

  • Mercator Projections
  • Map with parallel lines of latitude and longitude
  • It distorts shapes
slide33

Types of Maps

  • Mercator Projections
  • Conic Projections
slide34

Types of Maps

  • Mercator Projections
  • Conic Projections
  • Made by projecting points and lines onto a cone
  • Some object not distorted
slide36

Types of Maps

  • Mercator Projections
  • Conic Projections
  • Gnomonic Projections
  • Made by projecting points and lines to paper that touches globe at single point
slide37

Types of Maps

  • Mercator Projections
  • Conic Projections
  • Gnomonic Projections
  • Made by projecting points and lines to paper that touches globe at single point
  • Useful for navigation
slide39

Types of Maps

  • Topographic Maps
slide40

Types of Maps

  • Topographic Maps
  • Contour lines

900

Drawn through places at the same elevation

slide41

Types of Maps

  • Topographic Maps
  • Contour lines
  • Index contours

900

Labeled contour lines.

slide42

Types of Maps

  • Topographic Maps
  • Contour lines
  • Index contours
  • Depression contour lines have hachures
slide43

Other features

  • Map Legends

Gives names of map features

slide44

Other features

  • Map Legends
  • Map Scales

Tells ratio of map distances to real distances

slide45

Practice Problem 4

What is the distance from Buffalo to Albany?

slide47

Remote Sensing – 2.3

Objectives

  • Compare & contrast the different forms of radiation in the EM spectrum
  • Describe how satellites and sonar are used to map Earth’s surface
  • Describe the Global Positioning System
slide48

On-site observations

You go to the location you want to map

slide49

On-site observations

  • Remote sensing
slide50

On-site observations

  • Remote sensing
  • Satellites are often used
slide51

On-site observations

  • Remote sensing
  • Satellites are often used
  • The electromagnetic spectrum is used, too
slide52

Electromagnetic Spectrum

Long waves

Short waves

Radio waves

Infra-red

Ultra-violet

Gamma rays

Micro-waves

Visible

X-rays

slide54

Satellites

  • Landsat Satellites
slide55

Satellites

  • Landsat Satellites
  • uses visible and infrared light
slide56

Satellites

  • Landsat Satellites
  • uses visible and infrared light
  • measures light radiated by Earth’s surface
slide57

Satellites

  • Landsat Satellites
  • uses visible and infrared light
  • measures light radiated by Earth’s surface
  • useful for comparisons of landforms over time
slide58

Satellites

  • Landsat Satellites
  • uses visible and infrared light
  • measures light radiated by Earth’s surface
  • useful for comparisons of landforms over time
  • images
slide62

Satellites

  • Topex/Poseidon Satellite
slide63

Satellites

  • Topex/Poseidon Satellite
  • uses high frequency radio waves
slide64

Satellites

  • Topex/Poseidon Satellite
  • uses high frequency radio waves
  • looks at ocean surface, which indicates features of ocean floor
slide65

Satellites

  • Topex/Poseidon Satellite
  • uses high frequency radio waves
  • looks at ocean surface, which indicates features of ocean floor
  • studies tides and currents
slide66

Satellites

  • Topex/Poseidon Satellite
  • uses high frequency radio waves
  • looks at ocean surface, which indicates features of ocean floor
  • studies tides and currents
  • images
slide68

Satellites

  • Global Positioning System (GPS)
slide69

Satellites

  • Global Positioning System (GPS)
  • 24 satellites working together
slide70

Satellites

  • Global Positioning System (GPS)
  • 24 satellites working together
  • uses microwaves
slide71

Satellites

  • Global Positioning System (GPS)
  • 24 satellites working together
  • uses microwaves
  • used primarily for navigation
slide73

Ship based technology

  • Sea Beam
  • uses sonar
slide74

Ship based technology

  • Sea Beam
  • uses sonar
  • maps the ocean floor