Mapping our World

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# Mapping our World - PowerPoint PPT Presentation

Mapping our World. Chap. 2. Latitude and Longitude 2.1 Types of Maps 2.2 Remote Sensing 2.3. Latitude and Longitude – 2.1. Objectives. Compare & contrast latitude & longitude Describe how time zones vary. Cartography. Science of mapmaking. Locating objects on a sphere.

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## Mapping our World

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### Mapping our World

Chap. 2

Latitude and Longitude 2.1

Types of Maps 2.2

Remote Sensing 2.3

Latitude and Longitude – 2.1

Objectives

• Compare & contrast latitude & longitude
• Describe how time zones vary

Cartography

Science of mapmaking

Locating objects on a sphere

• Latitude

(Lat = fLat) These lines are horizontal and tell how far North or South an object is

Locating objects on a sphere

• Latitude
• Equator drawn at center

Locating objects on a sphere

• Latitude
• Equator drawn at center
• Lines are parallel

Locating objects on a sphere

• Latitude
• Equator drawn at center
• Lines are parallel
• 90º N is at the north pole

Locating objects on a sphere

• Latitude
• Equator drawn at center
• Lines are parallel
• 90º N is at the north pole

Practice Problem 1

The Earth’s circumference is about 40 000 km. There are 360º in a circle. What is the distance between

degrees?

40 000 km

Locating objects on a sphere

• Latitude
• Equator drawn at center
• Lines are parallel
• 90º N is at the north pole
• Each latitude line is 111km

Locating objects on a sphere

• Latitude
• Equator drawn at center
• Lines are parallel
• 90º N is at the north pole
• Each latitude line is 111km
• Degrees are divided into minutes and seconds.

1 º = 60’ 1’ = 60”

Locating objects on a sphere

• Longitude

These are ‘long’. They go up and down and tell how far East or West an object is

Locating objects on a sphere

• Longitude
• Travel through the poles

Locating objects on a sphere

• Longitude
• Travel through the poles
• They are NOT parallel

Locating objects on a sphere

• Longitude
• Travel through the poles
• They are NOT parallel
• The prime meridian is 0º longitude and goes through Greenwich, England

Locating objects on a sphere

• Longitude
• Travel through the poles
• They are NOT parallel
• The prime meridian is 0º longitude and goes through Greenwich, England
• On the opposite side of the globe the prime meridian is the International date line.

Practice Problem 2

What is the distance between

longitude

degrees?

Time Zones

• The Earth is divided into 24 zones

Practice Problem 3

How many degrees for each time zone? (Remember there is a total of 360º)

Time Zones

• The Earth is divided into 24 zones
• The dividing lines may be slightly adjusted

Time Zones

• The Earth is divided into 24 zones
• The dividing lines may be slightly adjusted
• The International Date line marks a division between

Time Zones

• The Earth is divided into 24 zones
• The dividing lines may be slightly adjusted
• The International Date line marks a division between
• When you cross this traveling West you add a calendar day

Time Zones

• The Earth is divided into 24 zones
• The dividing lines may be slightly adjusted
• The International Date line marks a division between
• When you cross this traveling West you add a calendar day
• When you cross this East you move the calendar back a day

Types of Maps – 2.2

Objectives

• Compare and contrast different map projections
• Analyze topographic maps
• Describe map characteristics, such as map scales and legends

Types of Maps

• Mercator Projections

Types of Maps

• Mercator Projections
• Map with parallel lines of latitude and longitude
• It distorts shapes

Types of Maps

• Mercator Projections
• Conic Projections

Types of Maps

• Mercator Projections
• Conic Projections
• Made by projecting points and lines onto a cone
• Some object not distorted

Types of Maps

• Mercator Projections
• Conic Projections
• Gnomonic Projections
• Made by projecting points and lines to paper that touches globe at single point

Types of Maps

• Mercator Projections
• Conic Projections
• Gnomonic Projections
• Made by projecting points and lines to paper that touches globe at single point

Types of Maps

• Topographic Maps

Types of Maps

• Topographic Maps
• Contour lines

900

Drawn through places at the same elevation

Types of Maps

• Topographic Maps
• Contour lines
• Index contours

900

Labeled contour lines.

Types of Maps

• Topographic Maps
• Contour lines
• Index contours
• Depression contour lines have hachures

Other features

• Map Legends

Gives names of map features

Other features

• Map Legends
• Map Scales

Tells ratio of map distances to real distances

Practice Problem 4

What is the distance from Buffalo to Albany?

Remote Sensing – 2.3

Objectives

• Compare & contrast the different forms of radiation in the EM spectrum
• Describe how satellites and sonar are used to map Earth’s surface
• Describe the Global Positioning System

On-site observations

You go to the location you want to map

On-site observations

• Remote sensing

On-site observations

• Remote sensing
• Satellites are often used

On-site observations

• Remote sensing
• Satellites are often used
• The electromagnetic spectrum is used, too

Electromagnetic Spectrum

Long waves

Short waves

Infra-red

Ultra-violet

Gamma rays

Micro-waves

Visible

X-rays

Satellites

• Landsat Satellites

Satellites

• Landsat Satellites
• uses visible and infrared light

Satellites

• Landsat Satellites
• uses visible and infrared light
• measures light radiated by Earth’s surface

Satellites

• Landsat Satellites
• uses visible and infrared light
• measures light radiated by Earth’s surface
• useful for comparisons of landforms over time

Satellites

• Landsat Satellites
• uses visible and infrared light
• measures light radiated by Earth’s surface
• useful for comparisons of landforms over time
• images

Satellites

• Topex/Poseidon Satellite

Satellites

• Topex/Poseidon Satellite
• uses high frequency radio waves

Satellites

• Topex/Poseidon Satellite
• uses high frequency radio waves
• looks at ocean surface, which indicates features of ocean floor

Satellites

• Topex/Poseidon Satellite
• uses high frequency radio waves
• looks at ocean surface, which indicates features of ocean floor
• studies tides and currents

Satellites

• Topex/Poseidon Satellite
• uses high frequency radio waves
• looks at ocean surface, which indicates features of ocean floor
• studies tides and currents
• images

Satellites

• Global Positioning System (GPS)

Satellites

• Global Positioning System (GPS)
• 24 satellites working together

Satellites

• Global Positioning System (GPS)
• 24 satellites working together
• uses microwaves

Satellites

• Global Positioning System (GPS)
• 24 satellites working together
• uses microwaves