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HOMOPHOBIA:. Effects on Homosexuals. a. Internalised Oppression. Jen & Family Adopted Children & Racism An Adoptee talks about Racism. Urban v Rural.

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Effects on Homosexuals

a internalised oppression
a. Internalised Oppression
  • Jen & Family
  • Adopted Children & Racism
  • An Adoptee talks about Racism
urban v rural
Urban v Rural

Majority of LGBT people in media tend to be white, middle class, men living in urban areas with access to a social scene and support services

Many LGBTs live in rural areas and small towns where there are no support services. They can be very isolated

Also more complicated for people who experience multiple oppression


Some people identify as bisexual as part of the coming out process before accepting they are lesbian/gay;

Bisexuality is an orientation in itself – according to Kinsey, significant proportion of population are bisexual;

Subject to biphobia of both heterosexual and homosexual communities

transgender issues
Transgender Issues

Coming out process different, some identify at first as gay then later as trans;

Can be heterosexual, homosexual, bisexual;

Higher levels of mental health problems;

Best to bring in specialist trainer on trans issues;

Information on GALYIC website (support, coming out, other publications).

cass identity model handout
Cass’ Identity Model:handout

Identity Confusion

Identity Comparison

Identity Tolerance

Identity Acceptance

Identity Pride

Identity Synthesis

internalised racism disableism
Internalised Racism & Disableism

Two short extracts from television programmes

These emphasise the similarity of dealing with ‘spoilt’ identities.

identity development friend s model
Identity Development: Friend’s Model
  • Older LGBs
    • Stereotypical Option
    • Passing Option
    • Optimal Affirmation
stereotypical option
Stereotypical Option
  • Conformed to negative beliefs
  • Hid sexual orientation
  • Lived with shame, self-loathing, guilt
  • Alienated, lonely, depressed
  • Secrecy: hid all or parts of themselves from family and friends
  • Created wall of separation and distance
  • Contact with family minimal and superficial
  • Distanced from other lesbians and gays
  • Unlikely develop support from lesbians and gays to challenge negative images
passing option
Passing Option
  • Little less isolation, not totally accepting negative views
  • Believed heterosexuality superior but marginally accepted same-sex orientation
  • Not fully accept as felt valued for what others expected them to be rather than for who they really were
  • Often heterosexually married
  • Remained married and closeted to pass
  • Keep distance from identifiable lesbians and gays
  • If in link-up with one, did it in such a way as to still appear heterosexual
  • Lived in two worlds: public, secret: emotional costs often high
optimal affirmation outcome
Optimal Affirmation Outcome
  • Grew up in hostile environment, but rejected negative images and adopted positive identity
  • Some through personal and political activism
  • Likely to be open with and accepted by families of origin
  • Encourage family to challenge homophobia
  • Attained high psychological adjustment
  • Research tends to reflect this group as most visible
external oppression
External Oppression
  • Isolation
    • Friends,
    • Society
    • Other LGBTs
  • School
    • Bullying : majority experience or witness
    • Isolation
    • Alienation – few positive role models
  • Homophobic abuse on the streets
  • Family
    • Pressure to conform
    • Verbal, physical, mental and sometimes sexual abuse
    • Rejection
combined effects
Mental Health



Self harm/suicide

Eating disorders

Alcohol/drug misuse


Risky sexual behaviour




HIV infection

Vulnerable to exploitation (sexual abuse)

Inaccessible services

Combined Effects
mediating factors
Mediating Factors
  • Coming out with support
  • Family acceptance and support
  • Accurate information
  • Positive role models
  • Peer support


GALYIC dvd for Department of Health

continued minority stress




Verbal Abuse;

Witnessing Homophobia

1 discrimination
1. Discrimination
  • Feelings of sadness and anxiety
  • Feelings that life is unfair and difficult
2 assault
2. Assault
  • Feelings of personal loss
  • Rejection
  • Humiliation
  • Depression
4 verbal abuse
4. Verbal Abuse
  • Difficult to understand emotional aftermath
  • Minimise feelings experienced
  • Agitation
  • Restlessness
  • Sleep disturbances
  • Headaches
  • Diarrhea
  • Deterioration in personal relationships
5 witnessing homophobia
5. Witnessing Homophobia
  • Increased depression
  • Anxiety
  • Post-traumatic disorder symptoms
  • Reinforced internalised oppression
  • Increased fears for one’s safety