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Kingdom fungi

Kingdom Fungi

This chapter describes the morphology, life cycles, and ecological importance of the kingdom Fungi. The divisions of fungi are established on the basis of variations in sexual reproduction. Lichens are symbiotic complexes of fungi and algae. Fungi play an important ecological role, both as decomposers and by their mychorrizal associations with plant roots. A flagellated protistan may have been the common ancestor to fungi and animals.

Introduction to the fungi
Introduction to the Fungi

  • Most fungi are multicellular eukaryotes.

  • They differ from other eukaryotes in their nutrition, structure,growth, and reproduction.

Introduction to the fungi1
Introduction to the Fungi

  • Fungi are heterotrophs

  • They obtain nutrition through absorption, in which they take up small molecules from their surroundings.

  • Fungi secrete hydrolytic enzymes and digest food outside their bodies.

Introduction to the fungi2
Introduction to the Fungi

  • The bodies of fungi are composed of filaments called hyphae that are intertwined together to form a mycelium (the body).

  • Most fungi are multicellular and the hyphae are made up of cells with walls between them called septa.

  • The cell walls are made of chitin.

Introduction to the fungi3
Introduction to the Fungi

  • Know Figure 31.2

Introduction to the fungi4
Introduction to the Fungi

  • Fungi produce spores either sexually or asexually

  • They disperse spores in order to reproduce

  • The spores of most fungal species are haploid

Sexual vs asexual fungi reproduction
Sexual vs Asexual Fungi Reproduction

Diversity of fungi
Diversity of Fungi

  • There are four phyla of fungi:

    • Chytridiomycota

    • Zygomycota

    • Ascomycota

    • Basidomycota

Diversity of fungi1
Diversity of Fungi

  • Division Chytridiomycota (chytrids)

    • Aquatic saprobes or parasites

    • Thought to be the most primitive of fungi

Diversity of fungi2
Diversity of Fungi

  • Division Zygomycota

    (zygote fungi)

    • Terrestrial

    • Some form mycorrhizae – mutualistic assocations with plant roots (Producing enzymes that encourage root growth)

    • Common specimen is bread mold (Rhizopus)

Diversity of fungi3
Diversity of Fungi

  • Ascomycota

    (sac fungi)

    • Live in a variety of environments

    • Common forms include unicellular yeasts, cup fungi, morels, and lichens

Diversity of fungi4
Diversity of Fungi

  • Basidiomycota

    (club fungus)

    • Include mushrooms

    • Important decomposers of plant material

Diversity of fungi5
Diversity of Fungi

  • Three other important fungi include:

    • Molds

    • Yeasts

    • Lichens

Diversity of fungi6
Diversity of Fungi

  • Molds

    • Rapidly growing fungi that reproduce asexually

    • Saprobes or parasites

    • Common form is penicillin, other forms are also used as antibiotics

Diversity of fungi7
Diversity of Fungi

  • Yeasts

    • Unicellular fungi that live in moist habitats

    • Produce asexually by budding

    • Saccharomyces cerevisiae used in baking, brewing, and molecular genetic research

Diversity of fungi8

Diversity of Fungi

  • Lichens

    • Symbiotic associations of photosynthetic microorganisms (algae) embedded in a network of fungal hyphae

    • Hardy organisms that are pioneers on rock and soil surfaces

Ecological impacts of fungi
Ecological Impacts of Fungi

  • Fungi are important decomposers that release organic nutrients, enabling them to cycle through the environment

  • Pathogenic fungi cause athlete’s foot, yeast infections, and lung infections

  • Some fungi are edible, such as commercially cultivated mushrooms as well as some wild mushrooms

Phylogenetic relationships of fungi
Phylogenetic Relationships of Fungi

  • Flagellated stage found in the most ancient lineage of chytrids is indicative of a protist ancestor

  • Other fungal divisions lost their flagellated stages as they developed reproduction and dispersal methods for life on land

  • Comparisons of proteins and ribosomal RNA indicate that animals and fungi diverged from a common ancestor

Sexual vs asexual fungi reproduction1
Sexual vs Asexual Fungi Reproduction

Fungi lifecycle
Fungi Lifecycle

Label plasmogamy karyogamy and meiosis p 582
Label Plasmogamy, Karyogamy, and meiosis p. 582

Label plasmogamy karyogamy and meiosis p 5821
Label Plasmogamy, Karyogamy, and meiosis p. 582

Kingdom fungi

Ecological Impacts

of Fungi

Phylogenetic Relationships

of Fungi