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Family Violence . Article by: Patrick Tolan, Debrorah Gorman-Smith, and David Henry Presented by: Megan Bartoszewski. Purpose and Take-Home Message. Review of Family Violence (FV) Literature Current knowledge related to controversies in FV Integrative steps to advance knowledge of FV

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Family Violence

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    1. Family Violence Article by: Patrick Tolan, Debrorah Gorman-Smith, and David Henry Presented by: Megan Bartoszewski

    2. Purpose and Take-Home Message • Review of Family Violence (FV) Literature • Current knowledge related to controversies in FV • Integrative steps to advance knowledge of FV • Appreciation of FV as a complex problem • Challenging set of scientific and practical issues • Need to be managed to reduce public health threat • Integration of research across forms of FV • Approach theory and practice through an ecological perspective • What is meant by an “ecological perspective”?

    3. Problems with current approach to FV research and policy • Focus on separate forms vs. an overall understanding of violence in families: • Preoccupation with controversies: • Conceptualization • Definition • Measurement • Negative Implications: Segregated understanding and policy direction for types of FV • Impedes advancement of scientific study integration of knowledge and policy about FV • Studies are not able to address alternative explanations • Advocacy efforts are oversimplified or ignore other forms of FV or complex issues in affecting change in violence rates • Example provided by article

    4. Why should we focus on FV? Family Violence is the most prevalent form of violence in the US. 7 of you said TRUE In younger populations, violence between acquaintances or strangers is more common than Family Violence. 6 of you said FALSE In older populations, violence between acquaintances or strangers is more common than Family Violence. 5 of you said FALSE

    5. Why should we focus on FV? • Most prevalent form of violence in the US • Consequences of FV • Physical injuries and deaths • Psychological impact • Detrimental functioning/Decreased productivity “major health and social problem” • Great costs to health care, criminal justice • Presupposes a relationship between those involved. • Presents a paradox: Harm by those who are supposed to Care • Antithetical to value of the family • Relationships exist: prior to, during, and after violent incidents or periods • Violence among family members has a legal meaning that is different from other forms of violence

    6. Valuable, but what is FV? • Controversy about defining FV and its forms • Behaviors included in the definition of FV contribute to differences in: • Rates • Meanings • Implications drawn • Disputed Elements • Political ramifications of terminology • The value of studying violence apart from presumption of effects or implications • The extent to which violent acts are seen as part of a broader set of problematic behaviors and relationship characteristics • Presented Challenge: • Attempt to forge conceptual consensus about how to define forms of FV • Simultaneously trying to relate these areas of study

    7. Controversies in Defining FV • Central Controversy : • Should FV be synonymous with abuse or substantial mistreatment of family members? • Should the definition encompass all acts of violence, or only serious or ongoing patterns of violence? • Controversy 2 : • What if FV is equated to abuse, including nonviolent abuse. • Pro: This type of abuse is more relevant in forming policy. • Con: Serious violence only makes up a small portion of the measure of violence. • Controversy 3: • How to incorporate gender inequities and dependency differences related to power within family relationships. • Suggested: Relationship perspective • Controversy 4: • Extent to which common or socially sanctioned violent behavior in family relationships should be considered problematic. • Inconsistent results regarding negative effects of corporal punishment • Possible undercutting of credibility of findings

    8. So again, What is FV?? • Currently: Some reviews attempt to signify why one view should prevail and/or suggest operational definitions that promote one connotation • Suggested: Relating these components and views in order to understand the ecology of family violence • Leaning towards: • Considering threatening verbal behavior and intimidation • Violence in family relationships may have different meanings because of dependency among family members • Multiple influences on family violence: individual, relationship, context

    9. Prevalence-Domestic Violence Community and representative samples report higher rates of violent domestic or partner acts for men versus women. 6 of you said TRUE Women initiate violent acts against their partner at higher rates than do men. 7 of you said FALSE  Negative effects on individuals are greater when they are only the victim (and not also the perpetrator) of violent acts in their relationship with their partner. 4 of you said FALSE  Within young couples, males have shown higher aggression than females. 6 of you said TRUE Within older couples, males have shown higher aggression than females. 6 of you said TRUE

    10. Prevalence of Domestic Violence • Gender Differences • National Family Violence Survey and assault results • Young couples (14-22) higher aggression in females • Older couples (23-49) higher aggression in men (Archer 2002) • Directionality of Violence Between Partners • Violence between partners is often BIDIRECTIONAL • Arrest Practices • Question: Why are men arrested at a higher rate? • Actual seriousness • Differential relation of behavior to reporting violence to police • Police reaction depending on the gender of the victim • Example • Results reported for 2003-Still true today? • Up to Date Information

    11. Prevalence-Child Abuse Children under the age of 3 suffer the highest rates of child abuse. 7 of you said FALSE Unmarried partners of parents are responsible for a larger proportion of child deaths due to child abuse or neglect than are the children’s own parents. 5 of you said FALSE

    12. Child Abuse: What is it? • “Child abuse or maltreatment constitutes all forms of physical and/or emotional ill-treatment, sexual abuse, or neglect or negligent treatment or commercial or other exploitation, resulting in actual or potential harm to the child’s health, survival, development or dignity in the context of a relationship of responsibility, trust or power” (World Health Organization 2002). • Problems with definition or obtaining rates?

    13. Child Abuse Prevalence: • National Clearinghouse on Child Abuse and Neglect Information (2004) • 906,000 children victims of abuse or neglect 12.4 per 1000 • Children under the age of 3 had the highest rates of victimization • Girls slightly more than boys • Differed by ethnic group • 1500 Children died as the result of abuse or neglect • 80% parents, • 6% other relatives • 4% unmarried partners of parents • 79% were younger than 4 years • Community surveys suggest much higher rates of all forms of child abuse and maltreatment

    14. Prevalence-Elder Abuse The most common characteristics of a victim of elder abuse includes: being between the ages of 70 and 80, being female, and being African American. 5 of you said TRUE

    15. Elder Abuse Prevalence • Intro to Elder Abuse • Abuse divided into categories • Physical abuse • Psychological or emotional abuse • Financial or material abuse • Sexual abuse • Neglect • Findings • 4%-6% of the population WHO 2002 • Characteristics of Victims of Elder Abuse • Over 80 years of age • Females • 80% white

    16. Risk Factors of Family Violence: A Focus on Poverty as a Stressor • Those living in poverty display disproportionately higher rates of Domestic Violence. 4 of you said TRUE •  Domestic Violence increases the likelihood of violence toward children. 7 of you said TRUE • A parent with low self-esteem and/or mental health problems is more likely to commit acts of Child Abuse. 6 of you said TRUE • Physical Child Abuse is related to marital status and parental education. 4 of you said TRUE • Those who commit Elder Abuse tend to show a history of aggression or violence, current substance abuse, or have a mental illness. 6 of you said TRUE • The characteristics of children who suffer from Child Abuse include: being male, being a younger versus older child, and having medical complications or disabilities. 4 of you said FALSE

    17. Poverty as a Risk Factor • Discussed in DV and CB sections • Introduced in DV • Occurs across all socioeconomic levels • BUT those living in poverty are disproportionately affected…Why? • Suggestions • Greater stress • Hopelessness • Financial constraints • Reiterated in CB • Interpret poverty effects as reflecting STRESS and RESOURCE ISSUES • Example-Factors treated as a mediators or moderators of poverty CB relationship?

    18. Mediators of Poverty and CA • A1=Crime level; A2=Concentrated Poverty • B1=Family Factors; B2=interactions with individual and neighborhood factors • C=Risk of Child Abuse • A1C and A2C • A1B1 and B2; A2B1 and B2 • A1B1B2C; A2B1B2C • B1 and B2 all the sig/predict child abuse • A1 and A2 no longer significant/do not predict child abuse

    19. Poverty as a Risk Factor • Similar to Social Selection or Social Causation? • May reflect limited resources and support • Children of the Recession • Recession and Dating Violence • Family Violence Prevention Fund • Liz Claiborne Inc. Study of the Relationship between Recession and Dating Violence

    20. Poverty and Stress:Risk Factors of Elder Abuse • Elder Abuse • Not the dependence of the elder on the caregiver that matter • But rather is the dependence of the caregiver on the elder financially • Stress and Elder Abuse Example

    21. Promising Interventions The presence of one form of family violence is a risk factor for the presence of another form. 7 of you said TRUE Most interventions of Family Violence consider multiple forms of the phenomenon. 6 of you said TRUE Many interventions take into consideration that perpetrators of Family Violence were often victims once themselves. 6 of you said TRUE Dating Violence is often a precursor to Family Violence. 6 of you said TRUE

    22. Interventions-DV • Shelters for Victims • Mandatory Prosecution of Perpetrators • Treatment of Perpetrators • Reducing Dating Violence • The Youth Relationship Project • The Safe Dates Program

    23. Interventions-CA • Court-mandated treatment for offender • Parenting Practices and Family Interventions • Potential positive effects on mediators of of child abuse • Home Visitation for At-Risk Mothers • Critical Aspects of Effective Child Abuse Interventions • Proactive programs • Home visitation • Multi-component • Reactive Programs: • Parent-training interventions • Multi-component

    24. Interventions-EA • Ways to Reduce Elder Abuse • Reduce stress • Providing respite to the caregiver • Reduce depression • Economic hardship

    25. Conclusion • Recap • Forms of FV share many risk factors/effective interventions • Relation of policy advocacy to research has been limited • Personal responsibility vs. Multiple determinates • Broader consideration : Assist families with one type of violence to help affect and even prevent another form • Ecological Model as challenging but a (better?) alternative to the research and policies of FV