Learn and Live:Tips for a Healthy Lifestyle On behalf of the Creighton Cardiac Center and the American Heart Association February 2007
Prevalence of cardiovascular diseases in adults age 20 and older by age and sex (NHANES: 1999-2004). Source: NCHS and NHLBI. These data include coronary heart disease, heart failure, stroke and hypertension.
Deaths from diseases of the heart (United States: 1900–2004.) Source: NCHS and NHLBI.
Hospital discharges for cardiovascular diseases. (United States: 1970-2004). Note: Hospital discharges include people discharged alive, dead and status unknown. Source: NCHS and NHLBI.
Symptoms of a Heart Attack • Some heart attacks are sudden and intense, but most heart attacks start slowly, with mild discomfort. • Chest discomfort • Most heart attacks involve discomfort in the center of the chest that lasts more than a few minutes or that goes away and comes back. • It can feel like uncomfortable pressure, squeezing, fullness or pain. • Discomfort in other areas of the upper body • Symptoms can include pain or discomfort in one or both arms, the back, neck, jaw or stomach. • Shortness of breath • May occur with or without chest discomfort.
Symptoms of a Heart Attack • Other signs: These may include breaking out in a cold sweat, nausea or lightheadedness. • As with men, women's most common heart attack symptom is chest pain or discomfort. • But women are somewhat more likely than men to experience some of the other common symptoms, particularly shortness of breath, nausea/vomiting and back or jaw pain.
What do you do??? • Don't wait longer than a few minutes (no more than 5) before calling for help. • Call 9-1-1... Get to a hospital right away. • If you can't access the emergency medical services (EMS), have someone drive you to the hospital right away. • If you're the one having symptoms, don't drive yourself unless you have absolutely no other option.
Warning Signs of Stroke • Sudden numbness or weakness of the face, arm or leg, especially on one side of the body • Sudden confusion, trouble speaking or understanding • Sudden trouble seeing in one or both eyes • Sudden trouble walking, dizziness, loss of balance or coordination • Sudden, severe headache with no known cause
Warning Signs of Stroke • Immediately call 9-1-1 or the emergency medical services (EMS) number so an ambulance can be sent for you. • Also, check the time so you'll know when the first symptoms appeared.
Prevention Pays Off: Know Your Numbers!! • Systolic & diastolic blood pressure • Less than 140/90 in everyone • Less than 130/80 for diabetics • Whole blood glucose • Less than 126 mg/dl • Cholesterol • Total < 200 mg/dl, LDL depends on your risk factors • HDL is “happy” & higher is better • Height & weight: BMI < 25
Cholesterol • It's fairly easy to lower your cholesterol • Eat more foods low in saturated fat & cholesterol • Cut down on high-fat foods, especially those high in saturated fats • Watch your caloric intake
Tips for Healthy Living • Eat at least 5 servings of fruits & vegetables every day • Eat 6 or more servings of cereals, breads, pasta & other whole-grain products • Eat fish, poultry (without skin) & leaner cuts of meat instead of fatty ones • Eat fat-free or 1% milk dairy products rather than whole-milk dairy products
Tips for Healthy Living • Enjoy 30–60 minutes of vigorous activities on most (or all) days of the week • Maintain a healthy weight
Blood Pressure (BP) • High BP (HBP) usually has no symptoms • The only way to find out if you have HBP is to have your BP checked • If your BP is ok, get it checked at least every 2 years • If you have prehypertension or if you have a family history of HBP, you're at higher risk • Children & adults with smaller or larger than average-sized arms may need special-sized cuffs
10 Ways to Control Your BP • Know your BP. Have it checked regularly. • Know what your weight should be. Keep it at or below that level.
10 Ways to Control Your BP • Don't use too much salt in cooking or at meals. Avoid salty foods. • Eat a diet low in saturated fat according to AHA recommendations. • Control alcohol intake. Don't have more than one drink a day if you're a woman or two a day if you're a man.
10 Ways to Control Your BP • Take your medicine exactly as prescribed. Don't run out of pills even for a single day. • Keep appointments with your doctor. • Follow your doctor's advice about physical activity. • Make certain your relatives have their BP checked regularly. • Live a normal life in every other way.
Diabetes (DM): Not so Sweet • DM: fasting blood glucose of > 126 mg/dL • "Pre-diabetes”: glucose levels are higher than normal but not yet diabetic • Increased risk for developing type 2 DM, heart disease & stroke • One of these conditions: • Impaired fasting glucose • Impaired glucose tolerance
Not so Sweet • Type 2 DM is the most common form • DM is a major risk factor for stroke & coronary heart disease, including heart attack (MI) • Unfortunately, most diabetics are not aware of these risks
DM • It's critical for diabetics to have regular exams • Work closely with your doctor to manage your DM & control any other risk factors • If excess weight is an issue, a doctor may prescribe changes in eating habits, exercise programs and medications to help keep weight in check.
DM • Diabetics may avoid or delay cardiovascular disease by controlling their blood sugar & other risk factors • Control weight & cholesterol with a low-fat, low-cholesterol diet & regular exercise • It's also important to lower high blood pressure • Do not to smoke • BP should be lower than 130/80 mm Hg
Cigarette smoking: Bad News • Cigarette smoking: the most important preventable cause of premature death in the United States • Smokers have a higher risk of developing a number of chronic disorders • Cardiovascular disease & MIs • Several types of cancer • Chronic obstructive lung disease
Bad News • Smoking increases the risk of coronary heart disease by itself • when it acts with other factors, it greatly increases risk • Smoking increases BP, decreases exercise tolerance & increases the tendency for blood to clot
Bad News • Smoking also increases the risk of recurrent heart disease after bypass surgery • Smoking is the most important risk factor for young men & women • It produces a greater relative risk in persons under age 50 than in those over 50 • Women who smoke & use birth control pills greatly increase their risk of MI & stroke • compared with nonsmoking women who use birth control pills
Second-hand Smoke • The link between second-hand smoke & disease is well known • About 37,000 to 40,000 people die from heart & blood vessel disease caused by other people's smoke each year • Of these, about 35,000 nonsmokers die from heart disease, which includes MI
The Good News • About 48 million Americans smoke cigarettes, but most smokers are either actively trying to quit or want to quit • Since 1965, more than 40% of all adults who have ever smoked have quit
The Good News • After 1 year off cigarettes, the excess risk of heart disease caused by smoking is reduced by 50% • After 15 years of abstinence, the risk is similar to that for people who've never smoked • In 5 to 15 years, the risk of stroke for ex-smokers returns to the level of those who've never smoked
The Good News • Male smokers who quit between ages 35 to 39 add an average of 5 years to their lives • Female quitters in this age group add 3 years • Men & women who quit at ages 65 to 69 increase their life expectancy by 1 year
Improves self-image Controls weight Improves cholesterol Prevents/manages BP Prevents bone loss Boosts energy level Helps manage stress & releases tension Improves the ability to sleep well Counters anxiety/depression Increases strength/ability to do other physical activities Provides a way to share an activity with family & friends Establishes good heart-healthy habits in children Helps prevent chronic illnesses associated with age Maintains quality of life & independence longer Benefits of Exercise
Painless Ways to Increase Activity • Do housework yourself; Garden or mow • Go out for a walk before or after meals • Walk or bike to the store instead of driving • If walking, pick up the pace or choose a hilly route • Pedal your stationary bicycle while watching TV • Stand up while talking on the telephone • Walk the dog • Park farther in the lot & walk the extra distance • Keep exercise equipment in good working order & use it
Painless Ways to Increase Activity • Plan outings that include physical activity • See the sights in new cities by walking • Make a date with a friend to enjoy physical activities • Play music while exercising or doing housework • Dance with someone or by yourself • Join a club that emphasizes physical activity • When golfing, walk instead of using a cart • Play singles tennis instead of doubles • At a picnic, join in on badminton instead of croquet
Painless Ways to Increase Activity • Walk in the American Heart Association’s Heart Walk
Learn More & Live • Know your numbers • Get active • Work with your doctor • http://www.americanheart.org
Mission Quality patient care through education & research SERVICE, SERVICE, SERVICE We strive to exceed your expectations
18 Faculty Cardiologists 11 Non-invasive 4 Interventional 3 Electrophysiology 12 Cardiology Fellows 3 NPs/PAs 200+ Staff Registered Nurses PharmDs Exercise Science Specialists Nutritionists Tobacco Treatment Specialist Cardiac Sonographers Technicians Clerical Staff Administrative Professionals Division of Cardiology
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Partners in Cardiology Club Exercise Membership Individualized Exercise Program Nutrition Education Private Group Classes Cooking Schools Stress Management Tobacco Treatment Group Individual Outpatient Prevention Services
Outpatient CV Services • Arrhythmia Mgmt Services • Event Recorders • Holter Monitors • Heart-Lite • Therapeutic Monitoring • Anticoagulation medications • Arrhythmia medications • HIT (Heart Failure Mgmt) • Device Mgmt • Pacemaker • ICD • Patient Eval & Mgmt • EKG • Laboratory Studies • Chest X-ray • Stress Testing • Diagnostic Cardiac Cath • Cardiovascular Ultrasound • Carotid, peripheral, renal, abdominal • EECP • Cardiac Rehabilitation
Support Groups • The Cardiac Upbeats • The Jump Starters • Mended Hearts
Collaborative Approach • With Primary Care Provider • Patient • Family • Among faculty • Built in “second opinion”
Call Us With Questions • If you or a loved one have questions regarding Heart Health, talk to your primary care physician or contact The Cardiac Center of Creighton University Medical Center at 280-5920 to learn more about the programs available through Creighton's healthcare services.