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Yibal Seismicity. M. N. Toksöz, D. R. Burns and S. Sarkar, S. Kuleli, H. Zhang. November, 2007. Summary. Surface subsidence, deformation and earthquakes are induced by gas and oil production. Subsidence is monitored by leveling, GPS and InSAR.

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Yibal Seismicity


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yibal seismicity

Yibal Seismicity

M. N. Toksöz, D. R. Burns

and

S. Sarkar, S. Kuleli, H. Zhang

November, 2007

summary
Summary
  • Surface subsidence, deformation and earthquakes are induced by gas and oil production.
  • Subsidence is monitored by leveling, GPS and InSAR.
  • Shallow and deep seismic networks have recorded thousands of earthquakes.
  • Locating earthquakes poses a challenge due to strong velocity contrasts in the strata.
  • Earthquakes occur on preexisting faults and are caused by gas production and associated reservoir compaction.
  • Earthquakes can be used for determining the stress regime, anisotropy and reservoir properties.
seismicity outline
SEISMICITYOutline
  • Review of Seismicity
    • Seismic Networks
      • Shallow, Deep stations
    • Earthquake Locations
      • Epicenters, Focal depth
      • Correlations
  • New Approaches and Validations
    • Synthetic Seismograms
    • Time Reversed Acoustics Refocusing
    • Double Difference/Tomography
  • Suggestions for New Network
  • Felt Events and Earthquake Hazard
  • Conclusions
seismic monitoring network
Seismic Monitoring Network

Shallow Network

10/99

Present

~ 150 m below surface

seismic monitoring network1
Seismic Monitoring Network

Shallow Network

10/99

Present

~ 150 m below surface

Deep Network

08/03

02/02

~ 750 – 1300 m below surface

deep borehole network
Deep-borehole Network

MSL

Gas Top

Oil Top

analyzing individual clusters of events
Analyzing IndividualClusters of events

B

A’

  • Looking at seismic locations in 3D helps identification and mapping of faults and fractures.

A

B’

A

A’

B

B’

conclusions
Conclusions
  • Seismicity in Yibal is primarily induced by depletion/compaction of the gas reservoir
  • Earthquakes occur on preexisting faults, reactivated by compaction
  • Earthquakes create operational and safety issues
  • Microearthquakes provide data (P and S-waves) for reservoir characterization and time-lapse monitoring
  • Continuation of earthqauke monitoring in Yibal requires upgrade of network operations.
event locations past two years and earlier
Event Locations: Past Two Years and Earlier

Events located with only P -picks

Events located with both P & S -picks

slide35

SOULTZ

Early Experimental Phase

In The Upper Reservoir

1987 - 1997

Exploration of the Deep Reservoir

1988 - 2000

Downhole seismic network

slide36

Hydraulic Experiment

Soultz,1993

JHD

Collapsing