Evaluating and Documenting Sources Robin Lilly, NPHS 11/16/2011
Evaluating and Documenting Sources • For the controversial issue research project, you need to obtain a minimum of 7 sources • You are required to document your research in two different ways: • Source book • Annotated bibliography • For each source you obtain, you must evaluate how useful the source will be for your purposes
Source Book • The source book is a collection of copies of articles, pages, and notes • Copies: print or photocopy sources, then annotate them. On the top, write the TYPE of source it is • Notes: (needed for “experience” source) • Put bibliographic information at the top (author, title, city, publisher, etc) • Take notes from source • Quotations must be identified “quote” (page #) • Paraphrase need parenthetical citation (author #) • Your source book may have more than 7 sources
Annotated Bibliography • The Annotated bibliography is a typed list of the sources you’ve consulted during your research • It must have at least 7 sources (you may have more) • You might have more sources in your source book than in your annotated bibliography • your research focus may shift as you go through the process and learn about your topic • At issue, current controversies, or other anthologies can count as multiple sources
Annotated Bibliography • Must include the following information: • Bibliographic citation • Summary – brief in own words of the content of the article page • Evaluation (how you will use, qualification of the source, identification of appeal types) • Must be typed, compiled into a single document • Must be posted on turnitin.com
Evaluating Sources • For any source, look at the title, subtitle, abstract, publication information, and author’s name to spot check the source’s potential. • Ask: (copy these questions for reference) • What information does this text offer? • Can I trust this source? • How current is this source? • How detailed is this source? • Who is the intended audience? • Will this source help me to answer my research question(s)? • Qualify your sources using the ethos pathos and logos questions
Evaluating Logos in Sources • Logos: logical appeals claims are made based on facts and assumptions • Example claim: All men are mortal A=B • Socrates was a man C=A • Therefore Socrates is mortal. .:C=B • Example claim: Many people die from Bubonic plague. • Faulty fact: Many people have cats • Faulty conclusion:cats caused the Bubonic Plague • When evaluating, ask: • What assumptions are made? • Are they sound or faulty? • Are they supported? With what evidence?
Evaluating Pathos in Sources • Pathos: emotional appeals, most effective, most subliminal, fear and anger-> most deceptive? • Example: School shootings- • We feel pity-> we want to do something -> new laws to restrict guns • Example: Advertising that makes us insecure then offers a remedy (gum, mouthwash, toothpaste, and deodorant) • When evaluating, ask: • What emotions are being evoked? • What words are used “loaded”?(words that particularly emotional connotation) • Look at the word choices • What images or examples are used to support?
Evaluating Ethos in Sources • Ethos: appeals based on ethnics, moral values, authoritative character • Person trying to persuade should have an ethical/ authoritative character • When evaluating, ask: • Is the speaker/ writer trustworthy? • On what do we base that trust? • Is the speaker/ writer a true authority? • Or does the speaker/writer use authorities to support the argument? • To what shared values/ beliefs does the writer appeal? (ex: most people who commit crimes should be punished = shared value) • What elements of the writing detract from the ethos? (Misspellings, inaccuracies, misused words, etc.)