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Review: Cells of the Immune System. Leukocytes – White blood cells Myelocytes –macrophage , neutrophil, eosinophil , basophil Leukocytes – B, T and NK cells. From Larsson and Karlsson (2005). Review: Cells of the Immune System. Larsson and Karlsson (2005). Review: Myelocytes.

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Review: Cells of the Immune System

Leukocytes– White blood cells

Myelocytes–macrophage, neutrophil, eosinophil,basophil

Leukocytes – B, T and NK cells

From Larsson and Karlsson (2005)


Review: Cells of the Immune System

Larsson and Karlsson (2005)


Review: Myelocytes

Dendritic cell


Review: Myelocytes

•Macrophages – phagocytes, antigen presenting cells (APCs), specialized cells different organs, secrete cytokines, produce complement proteins, can produce ROS/RNS.

•Neutrophils – phagoctyes, can produce ROS/RNS, secrete antimicrobial peptides, 1st cell type to migrate from blood to infections, main targets are bacteria and fungi

•Eosinophils– phagocyte, targets parasites

•Basophils – secrete cytokines, involved in allergic response


Review: Lymphocytes


T cells

B cells

Natural killer cells


Review: Lymphocytes

• B cells – naïve B cells: contain antigen binding receptor (or membrane bound antibody), once activated –

memory cells: provides memory of antigen/antibody interaction; plasma cells: secrete soluble antibody


Review: Lymphocytes

• T cells - contain antigen binding receptor (TCR)

THcells: secretes cytokines that activate B cells, TCcells, macrophages and others.

TCcells: eliminates altered/damaged self cells (particularly those infected by viruses), fights tumors cells, secrete cytotoxins.

Tregcells: helps suppress immune response, plays a role in tolerance.

T reg cell


Review: Cells of the Immune System

•Natural killer cells – distinct from T and B cells due to lack of an antigen binding receptor, similar in function to TCcells, macrophage activation, defense against viruses, fight tumor formation, secrete cytotoxins.


Review: Cells of the Immune System

Derived from both lymphoid and myeloid precursors

•Dendritic cells – phagoctyes, antigen presenting cells (APCs), can produce ROS, secrete proinflammatory cytokines, secrete antimicrobial peptides.


Review: Organs of the Immune System

Primaryand secondary

lymphoid organs:

1°- maturation of lymphocytes

2°- sites where mature lymphocytes interact with antigen.

Level of organization:

collection of cells


lymphoid follicle


Review: Adaptive Immune Response

Antigen/Antibody interactions:

Antigen – any substance that binds specifically to an antibody or a T cell receptor (TCR).

Antibody- a protein (immunoglobulin) that recognizes a specific region (component) of an antigen.

Properties of immunogenicity:


Molecular size

Chemical composition/complexity


Host factors


Route of entry

antibody mediated e ffector functions
Antibody-Mediated Effector Functions


Assist/activate complement system


humoral and cellular immunity
Humoral and Cellular Immunity

•Humoral immunity – Host defenses that are mediated by antibody present in the plasma, lymph and tissue fluids.

•Cellular immunity – Host defenses that are mediated by antigen-specific T cells and various nonspecific cells of the immune system.

the complement system
The Complement System

Ricklin and Lambris 2007

the complement system1
The Complement System

Functions of the Complement System

the complement system2
The Complement System

Components of the Complement System:

proteins and glycoproteins

synthesized mainly by liver

5% of serum

circulate as zymogens

Designation of complement components:

numerals (C1-C9)

letter symbols (factor D)

trivial names (homologous restriction factor)

cleavage products – “a” and “b”

the complement system3
The Complement System

Complement Activation Pathways:

Classical Pathway

Alternative Pathway

Lectin Pathway