(Materials adapted from ANT 522 Intro. to Phonology by Lee Bickmore, UAlbany) Review:Phonology & Morpho-phonemics continued
Main Topics • Phonology & Morphological Analysis • Allophonic analysis • Morpho-phonemic analysis • Multiple rules & simplifying multiple rules, both in allophones & allomorphs. • Introduction to rule ordering.
Allophones Exercise • Focus on the sounds: [t,s,z] and [č, š, ž] • Which ones are phonemes and which ones are allophones? • What are the phonological rule(s)?
Morpho-phonemic analysis • Solving phonological problems that has a morphological component: • Choose and write down the UR of roots and affixes. • Remember, choosing URs can be crucial for your analysis. Sometimes, choosing URs is based on phonological analysis. • Write down phonological rules that explain the connection between the URs and the surface forms that appear in the dataset. • You may end up with more than one rule. Try to simplify rules as much as possible. Pay attention to similarities in distinctive features to do this.
Morpho-phonemic analysis • Logic of UR, Phonological rules & surface form (words in the dataset). UR + Phonological rules = Surface Form
Exercise: Morpho-phonemic Analysis Turkish • What are the morphemes for: (a) Genitive sg. & (b) Nom. plural • What are the phonological rules that explain the alternation?
Exercise: Morpho-phonemic Analysis What is the negative morpheme? What is the phonological rule(s) that explains all the allomorphs?
Exercise: Lamba (pg. 112-113) • Already know rule for Neuter: i -> e / V[-hi, -lo] C0 ______ • What is root for no. 4, 7, 11? • What are the rules for alternation of root in no. 4, 7,8,11,12? • Which rule should apply first?
Morpho-phonemic analysis • There can be multiple rules operating: • Rules that explain alternation in the root. • Rules that explain alternation in the affix. • These rules can interact with each other. • As a result, rules can have certain ordering. Some rules apply first, followed by another rule. • Next week, we will look into datasets with more complex rule ordering.