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How does science solve the problem of obesity. “Obesity is a medical condition in which excess body fat has accumulated to the extent that it may have an adverse effect on health”. (" Obesity." Wikipedia). The problem. In the United States (Gould 2012):

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how does science solve the problem of obesity

How does science solve the problem of obesity

“Obesityis a medical condition in which excess body fat has accumulated to the extent that it may have an adverse effect on health”

("Obesity." Wikipedia)

the problem
The problem
  • In the United States (Gould 2012):
    • 2 out of every 3 adults (62%) are overweight or obese
    • Obesity-related illness treatments cost an estimated $190.2 billion
  • In Germany (English 2011) :
    • 13.7% of adults are obese
    • 36.4% are overweight

Moderate obesity reduces life expectancy by about 3 years.

Severe obesity can shorten a person’s life by 10 years. (University of Oxford, 2009)

the solution orlistat
The Solution: Orlistat
  • 1983
  • Hoffmann-La Roche & Co., Switzerland
  • First developedtocontrolharmfulchemicals in thepancreas
how does orlistat work
How does Orlistat work?
  • Your stomach and intestine have enzymes, called lipases, that break down fat into smaller molecules, which are then absorbed from your digestive tract.
  • Orlistat binds to lipases keeps them from digesting the eaten fat
  • 30% of the fat eaten is blocked (Orlistat)
  • Undigested fat is passed out in feces

Dose is 3 tablets daily, lasts 1-2 hours, and can be taken for 1-2 years. Longer if necessary.

http://www.youtube.com/watch?v=vrfO9hS40jA

effectiveness of orlistat
Effectiveness of Orlistat
  • Orlistat reduces body weight by an average of 5-10%.
  • The greatest rate of weight loss occurs within the first six months of treatment.
  • Not more weight is lost over 2 years because only 30% of the fat is blocked.
  • Exercise must be included in the weight loss plan
  • Losing fat faster can actually be unhealthy

(Orlistat)

research
Research
  • A study found that patients taking Orlistat lost more weight than those on a placebo: ~9kg versus 6kg. (Davidson 1999)
human health interactions research
Human Health Interactions: Research
  • Research studies showed that people taking Orlistat
    • had a 60% reduction in the absorption of Vitamin E (Melia 1996)
    • displayed “vitamin D levels that were significantly reduced” (McDuffie 2002)
  • Of those sampled who were taking Orlistat and no vitamin supplement (Xenical Indications and Usage):
    • 12% developed a low level of Vitamin D
    • 5.8% developed a low level of Vitamin E
human health interactions effects
Human Health Interactions: Effects
  • Vitamin D and Vitamin A are absorbed with the fat that you eat
  • Studies indicate that Orlistat prevents your body from absorbing fat and therefore also vitamins D and E
  • Vitamins D helps your body absorb calcium used in making bone. The use of Orlistat could lead to softer bones that may be more prone to breaking.
  • Vitamin Ehelps maintain a healthy immune system, protects cells from antioxidants, and helps produce blood cells. The use of Orlistat could lead to a weaker immune system.

People taking Orlistat were recommended by their doctors to also take Vitamin supplements 2 hours before or 2 hours after the use of Orlistat to offset the effects of vitamin loss.

slide9

Resources

  • "Cholecalciferol (vitamin D3) Oral : Uses, Side Effects, Interactions, Pictures, Warnings & Dosing - WebMD." WebMD, n.d. Web. 14 Nov. 2012. <http://www.webmd.com/drugs/drug-6152-cholecalciferol vitamin D3 Oral.aspx?drugid=6152>.
  • Davidson, Michael H., PhD. "Weight Control and Risk Factor Reduction in Obese Subjects Treated for 2 Years With Orlistat." American Medical Association, 20 Jan. 1999. Web. 14 Nov. 2012. <http://jama.jamanetwork.com/article.aspx?articleid=188381>.
  • English, Cythnthia, and Nicolas Scharioth. "Half of Germans Are Obese and Overweight." Half of Germans Are Obese and Overweight. Gallup, 27 Oct. 2011. Web. 13 Nov. 2012. <http://www.gallup.com/poll/150359/half-germans-obese-overweight.aspx>.
  • Galland, Leo, Dr. "Solving America's Obesity Crisis." Health. The Christian Broadcasting Network, n.d. Web. 13 Nov. 2012. <http://www.cbn.com/health/weightloss/fatresistance_galland.aspx>.
  • Gould, Danielle. "A Systems Approach to Solving America's Obesity Problem." Forbes. Forbes Magazine, 11 May 2012. Web. 13 Nov. 2012. <http://www.forbes.com/sites/daniellegould/2012/05/11/a-systems-approach-to-solving-americas-obesity-problem/>.
resources
Resources
  • McDuffie, J. R. "Result Filters." National Center for Biotechnology Information. U.S. National Library of Medicine, July 2002. Web. 14 Nov. 2012. <http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/12126214>.
  • Melia, A. T., and S. G. Koss-Twardy. "Result Filters." National Center for Biotechnology Information. U.S. National Library of Medicine, July 1996. Web. 14 Nov. 2012. <http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/8844448>.
  • "Obesity." Wikipedia. Wikimedia Foundation, 08 May 2014. Web. 07 Aug. 2014. <http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Obesity>
  • "Obesity Update 2012." Obesity Update 2012. Organisation for Economic Co-operation and Development, n.d. Web. 13 Nov. 2012. <http://www.oecd.org/health/49716427.pdf>.
  • "Orlistat." Orlistat. EMedTV, n.d. Web. 14 Nov. 2012. <http://weight-loss.emedtv.com/orlistat/orlistat.html>.
slide11

Resources

  • "Orlistat (Xenical)." - EMedExpert.com, 25 Apr. 2011. Web. 13 Nov. 2012. <http://www.emedexpert.com/facts/orlistat-facts.shtml>.
  • "Overweight and Obesity - BMI Statistics." Overweight and Obesity - BMI Statistics. European Commission, Nov. 2011. Web. 13 Nov. 2012. <http://epp.eurostat.ec.europa.eu/statistics_explained/index.php/Overweight_and_obesity_-_BMI_statistics>.
  • "Patient.co.uk - Trusted Medical Information and Support." Patient.co.uk. N.p., n.d. Web. 14 Nov. 2012. <http://www.patient.co.uk/health/Orlistat-Help-With-Weight-Loss.htm>.
  • "Possible Interactions With: Vitamin D." University of Maryland Medical Center, n.d. Web. 14 Nov. 2012. <http://www.umm.edu/altmed/articles/vitamin-d-000995.htm>.
  • Traister, Jeffrey. "Drug Interactions With Vitamin D Supplements." LIVESTRONG.COM, 22 Oct. 2010. Web. 14 Nov. 2012. <http://www.livestrong.com/article/286589-drug-interactions-with-vitamin-d-supplements/>.
slide12

Resources

  • University of Oxford. "Moderate Obesity Takes Years Off Life Expectancy." ScienceDaily, 20 Mar. 2009. Web. 07 Aug. 2014. <http://www.sciencedaily.com/releases/2009/03/090319224823.htm>.
  • "Xenical Indications and Usage." Xenical Indications, Contraindications and Warnings.Pharmcom, n.d. Web. 14 Nov. 2012. <http://www.pharmcom.com/xenical_indications.html>.
  • "Xenical (Orlistat) Cost." Generic Xenical (Orlistat 60/120mg) $1.35 Pill. N.p., n.d. Web. 14 Nov. 2012. <http://www.healthy-people.biz/buy-xenical-usa.html>.