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Distributed Small-Scale Wind in New Zealand: Advantages, Barriers and Policy Support Instruments. Martin Barry 17 th July, 2007. Overview. Definition Aim & Method Key Issues Facing the Industry SSW Internationally & New Zealand Advantages Key Findings. Definition.

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distributed small scale wind in new zealand advantages barriers and policy support instruments

Distributed Small-Scale Wind in New Zealand:Advantages, Barriers and Policy Support Instruments

Martin Barry

17th July, 2007

overview
Overview

Definition

Aim & Method

Key Issues Facing the Industry

SSW Internationally & New Zealand

  • Advantages

Key Findings

slide3

Definition

Distributed Small-Scale Wind (SSW):

A wind project with 3 or less utility-scale turbines connected to the local lines network

Typical project size between 0.5 – 5 MW

slide4
Aim

To establish whether distributed, SSW in NZ is worthy of public policy support and if so, determine the most effective policy instruments to promote its uptake.

method
Method
  • International review: Journal articles, international wind energy associations, govt. publications, Wind Power Monthly magazine, GWEC
  • New Zealand
    • Interviews with 22 energy industry stakeholders
    • Rural mail survey
slide6

Method

Rural Survey Questions

1. Do you support/oppose wind power as a means of generating electricity in New Zealand?

1 2 3 4 5

Strongly support Support Indifferent Oppose Strongly oppose

slide7

Method

Rural Survey Questions

2. Please imagine a new small-scale (2 turbine) wind farm placed in your district.

How would you view the impact of such a wind farm?

1 2 3 4 5

Very positive Positive Neutral Fairly negative Negative

slide8

Method

Rural Survey Questions

3. Please imagine a new small-scale (14 turbine) wind farm placed in your district.

How would you view the impact of such a wind farm?

1 2 3 4 5

Very positive Positive Neutral Fairly negative Negative

slide9

Method

Rural Survey Questions

4. Is the idea of installing a wind turbine on your land appealing to you?

1 2 3 4 5

Very interested Possibly interested Not sure Prob not interested Definitely not interested

slide10

Method

Rural Survey Questions

5. Is the idea of installing a wind turbine on your land appealing to you?

If government support was offered (to ensure the ROI is comparable with other investments.

1 2 3 4 5

Very interested Possibly interested Not sure Prob not interested Definitely not interested

A survey of this type has not yet been done in New Zealand

key issues
Key Issues

NZ wind industry is failing to capitalise on the world- class wind resource it has available

growth rate
Growth Rate
  • Behind OECD average
growth rate13
Growth Rate
  • Intermittent
key issues14
Key Issues

NZ wind industry has adopted 4 characteristics that are limiting its future potential growth:

  • Trend toward large-scale (local opposition)
  • Limited flow of investment
  • Limited manufacturing capacity
  • High geographic concentration

There is arguably a need to reassess the way the industry is developing

key issues15
Key Issues

NZ wind industry has adopted 4 characteristics that are limiting its future potential growth:

  • Trend toward large-scale (local opposition)
  • Limited flow of investment
  • Limited manufacturing capacity
  • High geographic concentration

There is arguably a need to reassess the way the industry is developing

trend toward large scale
Trend toward large-scale

NZ wind developers favour the ‘big is better’ approach

  • 98% of installed capacity comes from farms with 15 or more turbines

Leading to increased local opposition & lengthening consent processes

    • E.g. Project West Wind delayed more than 15 months
    • Also Project Hayes, Awhitu, Tararua 3, Te Waka Ranges
  • Social acceptance is a key limiting factor of wind’s potential growth, e.g. UK
limited flow of investment
Limited flow of investment
  • 98% of total generating capacity being owned by only three developers
    • Meridian & Trustpower also investing in Australia

c.f.

    • Ireland: More than 40 investors
    • Denmark: More than 150,000 households
advantages of ssw
Advantages of SSW

Increased local public acceptance

Facilitates community ownership

Supports local manufacturing

Potential for distributed generation benefits

Utilises small high-wind sites

advantages of ssw19
Advantages of SSW

1. Increased local public acceptance

- 80% positive about SSW in local area

- 50% positive about a large wind farm (14+ turbines)

advantages of ssw20
Advantages of SSW

1. Increased local public acceptance

Significantly reduced NIMBY effect

slide21

Method

Rural Survey Questions

1. Do you support/oppose wind power as a means of generating electricity in New Zealand?

1 2 3 4 5

Strongly support Support Indifferent Oppose Strongly oppose

advantages of ssw22
Advantages of SSW

1. Increased local public acceptance

Significantly reduced NIMBY effect

Attitude toward

large-scale wind farm

Attitude toward SSW

23%

3.3%

n = 302

advantages of ssw23
Advantages of SSW

1. Increased local public acceptance

  • ‘Big is better’ is possibly creating an anti-wind sentiment
  • A spread of turbine clusters throughout NZ will give people a chance to familiarise themselves with wind on a scale that they find more acceptable and less intrusive
advantages of ssw24
Advantages of SSW

2. Facilitates community ownership

Widespread throughout Germany, Denmark, the Netherlands & Sweden

advantages of ssw25
Advantages of SSW

NZ Context

2. Facilitates community ownership

  • Proven to increase local public acceptance:
    • Greater tolerance of effects
    • Removes hostility toward large, commercial developers
    • Alleviates tensions between local and national interest
  • A new source of capital:
    • Greater investment pool
    • Increases competition in generation
    • Increases geographic diversity of wind capacity
advantages of ssw26
Advantages of SSW

NZ Context

2. Facilitates community ownership

  • Involves farmers in wind:
    • Utilise NZ’s vast rural potential for electricity generation
    • Opportunity for farming sector to partially offset emissions
    • Reduce the need for intensifying land use
  • Has demonstration value for the public:
    • Improve understanding of the link between energy and climate
    • Increase awareness of energy conservation
advantages of ssw27
Advantages of SSW

Survey found that rural landowners have a high degree of interest

NZ Context

66% interested in owning a turbine on their land

74.7% interested if government support is offered

not covered today
Not Covered Today

Disadvantages

Barriers

Policy Instruments

key findings
Key Findings
  • SSW has the potential to alleviate issues in the wind industry & the wider energy sector
  • Developing SSW would likely provide faster industry growth
  • Faster consent processes
  • More investors
  • Greater number of suitable sites (cf. large wind farms)

Source: (BMU, 2006)

Source: (BMU, 2006)

key findings30
Key Findings
  • People are significantly more positive about SSW being developed in their local area
  • The NIMBY effect is significantly reduced with SSW

Source: (BMU, 2006)

Source: (BMU, 2006)

  • Rural landowners in NZ are interested in community ownership

SSW should not be developed instead of large-scale wind farms, but rather alongside them

slide31

Thank you

Thesis can be downloaded fromhttp://hdl.handle.net/10063/87