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Marketing 260Buyer Behaviour Perception
Write down the first thought that pops into your head when you see this image…the FIRST THOUGHT Write down …the FIRST THOUGHT
PERCEPTION IS REALITY • How we perceive things is a function of our own personal realities…our history, our culture, our experiences, how we think and feel, our senses or lack thereof. • What we believe to be real is dependent upon our perception of what we know or experience…each person can have a different sense of reality as we are all individuals with a different set of experiences. • Marketing tries to stimulate and awaken perceptions…to change realities, strengthen perceptions, or invoke realities.
Perception in Marketing • Dependent upon Human Sensory System • Sensation – “immediate response of our sensory receptors” (ears, eyes, nose, mouth, fingers…”) • Perception – “the process by which sensations are selected, organized and interpreted”. Thus, we are looking at how humans choose which sensations to notice and then add meaning to them.
Sensory Systems - Vision • Size • Styling • Brightness • Distinctiveness • Colours
Sensory Systems - Smell • Odours and Fragances • Stir emotions or calming • **most primitive part of the brain (limbic system) = ?????????? • Cultural significance of smells? (e.g. Gillette)
Sensory Systems-Sounds • www.muzak.com • Music invokes mood • Rock & Roll (anxiety!) • Spas (ocean, water, nature) • Stores, elevators, on hold music, produce aisle
Sensory Systems-Touch • Stimulate or Relax moods • Can impact Sales results (e.g. diners touched by waiters…bigger tips) • Adds personalization…can also offend (how, who, when all are important) • Kansei Engineering • “horse and rider as one” (e.g. Mazda and the young) • Textures, sizes heights, lengths, and quality perceptions
Sensory Systems-Taste • People form strong preferences for certain tastes • www.alpha-mos.com (electronic tongue) • Awful = powerful • Good = pleasing
Exposure • “degree that people notice stimuli” • Why do they observe or ignore • Ignore what is not of interest • Sensory Threshold • Absolute (minimum) • Differential (JND – distinguishing stimuli) • Subliminal • Below threshold of recognition (unconscious) • Theatres and popcorn
Attention • Extent processing of activity is devoted to a particular stimulus • Focus, isolation, sensory deprivation • Attention Economy • Selectivity = people attend to only a small portion of stimuli • Adaptation • Degree to notice stimuli over time (e.g. blood and gore/shock value) • INTENSITY< DURATION < EXPOSURE (frequency) <RELEVANCE
Interpretation • “meanings assigned to stimuli” • Schema (set of beliefs) • Priming (properties of stimulus) e.g. pup vs. master snow blower • Content sensitive (your own reality)
Organizational Memory =Gestalt Psychology (p. 53) • “a belief that meaning comes from the totality of a set of stimuli, rather than any individual stimulus” • “principal of closure” (incomplete perceived as complete) • “principle of similarity” • “figure-ground principle” (follow the eye (image focus first))
Interpretation Biases • Semiotics • Signs, symbols and their roles in meaning • Perceptual Positioning • Function (price) vs. Symbolic (what it says about us through our use of it) • Positioning Strategy • Your marketing Mix approach (price, attributes, product class, occasions, users, quality)